External validation of the adult spinal deformity (ASD) frailty index (ASD-FI)
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To assess the ability of the recently developed adult spinal deformity frailty index (ASD-FI) to predict odds of perioperative complications, odds of reoperation, and length of hospital stay after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery using a database other than the one used to create the index.
We used the ASD-FI to calculate frailty scores for 266 ASD patients who had minimum postoperative follow-up of 2 years in the European Spine Study Group (ESSG) database. Patients were enrolled from 2012 through 2013. Using ASD-FI scores, we categorized patients as not frail (NF) (< 0.3 points), frail (0.3–0.5 points), or severely frail (SF) (> 0.5 points). Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for preoperative and surgical factors such as operative time and blood loss, was performed to determine the relationship between ASD-FI category and odds of major complications, odds of reoperation, and length of hospital stay.
We categorized 135 patients (51%) as NF, 90 patients (34%) as frail, and 41 patients (15%) as SF. Overall mean ASD-FI score was 0.29 (range 0–0.8). The adjusted odds of experiencing a major intraoperative or postoperative complication (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.0–10) or having a reoperation (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.7–8.9) were higher for SF patients compared with NF patients. Mean hospital stay was 2.1 times longer (95% CI 1.8–2.4) for SF patients compared with NF patients.
Greater patient frailty, as measured by the ASD-FI, is associated with longer hospital stays and greater odds of major complications and reoperation.
KeywordsAdult spinal deformity Comorbidities Complications Frailty index Functional status Preoperative risk stratification
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
None of the authors has any potential conflict of interest.
Institutional review board approval for patient inclusion in this database was obtained by each of the sites that contributed patient information. Each patient signed a consent document before inclusion.
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