Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 24, Issue 9, pp 3885–3892 | Cite as

Stability characterization of vacuum encapsulated MEMS resonators with Au–Sn solder bonding

  • Jicong Zhao
  • Quan Yuan
  • Haiyan Sun
  • Jinling Yang
  • Ling Sun
Technical Paper


This paper presents a vacuum encapsulation technique and stability characterization for MEMS resonator. Sn-rich Au–Sn solder bonding is used to achieve reliable hermetic packaging with high shear strength. Simple planar feedthrough structure is utilized to achieve electrical interconnection and low cost of packaging. The stabilities of the encapsulated resonator are systematically studied, including frequency stability, temperature stability, long-term hermeticity, and mechanical reliability. The short-term and medium-term frequency stability are ± 0.4 and ± 3 ppm, respectively. The temperature cycle test is introduced between − 20 and 80 °C, and the resonant-frequency drift of the packaged resonator is within ± 4 ppm between 40 temperature cycles. Furthermore, the packaged resonator is temperature compensated by micro-oven, which obtained a frequency stability range of ± 13 ppm between 20 and 100 °C. The packaged resonator shows favorable long-term stability of the Q-factor over 200 days and average shear strength of 43.93 MPa among 12 samples.



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61734007), the Key Research Program of Frontier Science of CAS (QYZDY-SSW-JSC004), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFB0405400), the Key Research & Development Program of Jiangsu Province, China (BE2016007-2), and the Major Project of Natural Science Research of the Higher Education Institutions of Jiangsu Province, China (16KJA510006).


  1. Candler RN, Hopcroft MA, Kim B, Park WT, Melamud R, Agarwal M, Yama G, Partridge A, Lutz M, Kenny TW (2006) Long-term and accelerated life testing of a novel single-wafer vacuum encapsulation for MEMS resonators. J Microelectromech Syst 15(6):1446–1456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Candler RN, Kim B, Hopcroft MA, Agarwal M, Park WT, Kenny TW (2007) Sens Actuators A 136:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen KL, Wang SS, Salvia JC, Melamud R, Howe RT, Kenny TW (2011) Wafer-level epitaxial silicon packaging for out-of-plane RF MEMS resonators with integrated actuation electrodes. IEEE Trans Compon Packag Manuf Technol 1:310–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen YH, Ng JE, Shin DD, Ahn CH, Yang YS, Flader IB, Hong VA, Kenny TW (2016) Ovenized dual-mode clock (ODMC) based on highly doped single crystal silicon resonators. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on micro electro mechanical systems, Shanghai, China, 24–28 Jan 2016, pp 91–94Google Scholar
  5. Datasheet from SiTime Corporation web-site (2013)
  6. Datasheet from SiTime Corporation web-site (2017)
  7. Fang ZQ, Mao X, Yang JL, Yang FH (2013) A wafer-level Sn-rich Au–Sn intermediate bonding technique with high strength. J Micromech Microeng 23(9):095008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ho GK, Sundaresan K, Pourkamali S, Ayazi F (2006) Temperature compensated IBAR reference oscillators. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on micro electro mechanical systems, Istanbul, Turkey, 22–26 Jan 2006, pp 910–913Google Scholar
  9. Hsu WT (2006) Reliability of silicon resonator oscillators. In: Proceedings of IEEE international frequency control symposium and exposition, Miami, USA, 4–7 June 2006, pp 389–392Google Scholar
  10. Hsu WT (2008) Resonator miniaturization for oscillators. In: Proceedings of IEEE international frequency control symposium, Honolulu, USA, 19–21 May 2008, pp 392–395Google Scholar
  11. Hsu WT, Nguyen CTC (1998) Geometric stress compensation for enhanced thermal stability in micromechanical resonators. In: Proceedings of IEEE ultrasonics symposium, Sendai, Japan, 5–8 Oct 1998, pp 945–948Google Scholar
  12. Hsu WT, Pai MF (2007) The new heart beat of electronics - silicon MEMS oscillators. In: Proceedings of electronic components and technology conference, Reno, USA, 29 May–1 June 2007, pp 1895–1899Google Scholar
  13. Kim DW, Kim JS, Wang GL, Lee CC (2005) Nucleation and growth of intermetallics and gold clusters on thick tin layers in electroplating process. Mater Sci Eng A 393:315–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Luo W, Zhao JC, Yuan Q, Peng BH, Yang JL, Yang FH (2016) Nonlinear effect of disk resonator. Microsyst Technol 22(12):2971–2976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Marauska S, Claus M, Lisec T, Wagner B (2013) Low temperature transient liquid phase bonding of Au/Sn and Cu/Sn electroplated material systems for MEMS wafer-level packaging. Microsyst Technol 19(8):1119–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mavoori H, Ramirez AG, Jin SH (2002) Lead-free universal solders for optical and electronic devices. J Electron Mater 31:1160–1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Melamud R, Kim B, Chandorkar S, Hopcroft MA, Agarwal M, Jha CM, Kenny TW (2007) Temperature-compensated high-stability silicon resonators. Appl Phys Lett 90(24):244107–244109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nguyen CTC, Howe RT (1993) Microresonator frequency control and stabilization using an integrated micro oven. In: Proceedings of international solid-state sensors, actuators and microsystems conference, Yokohama, Japan, 7–10 Jun 1993, pp 1040–1043Google Scholar
  19. Shin DD, Chen YH, Flader IB, Kenny TW (2017) Epitaxially encapsulated resonant accelerometer with an on-chip micro-oven. In: Proceedings of international solid-state sensors, actuators and microsystems conference, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 18–22 June 2017, pp 595–598Google Scholar
  20. Tanaka SJ (2014) Wafer-level hermetic MEMS packaging by anodic bonding and its reliability issues. Microelectron Reliab 54(5):875–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wang J, Ren Z, Nguyen CTC (2004) 1.156-GHz self-aligned vibrating micromechanical disk resonator. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 51(12):1607–1628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wu GQ, Xu DH, Xiong B, Wang YC, Wang YL, Ma YL (2012) Wafer-level vacuum packaging for MEMS resonators using glass frit bonding. J Microelectromech Syst 21(6):1484–1491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xie J, Liu YF, Zhao H, Yang JL, Yang FH (2011) Reliable low-cost fabrication and characterization methods for micromechanical disk resonators. In: Proceedings of international solid-state sensors, actuators and microsystems conference, Beijing, China, 5–9 June 2011, pp 2462–2465Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jiangsu Key Laboratory of ASIC DesignNantong UniversityNantongPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute of SemiconductorsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of ScienceBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Transducer TechnologyShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations