Advertisement

Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 24, Issue 7, pp 2969–2981 | Cite as

Design, fabrication and testing of reduced graphene oxide strain gauge based pressure sensor with increased sensitivity

  • M. S. Manjunath
  • N. Nagarjuna
  • G. Uma
  • M. Umapathy
  • M. M. Nayak
  • K. Rajanna
Technical Paper
  • 122 Downloads

Abstract

Pressure sensors with high sensitivity, repeatable output, wide sensing range, suitable for mass production and which can be manufactured cost effectively are highly desirable for pressure sensing applications. Over the years Graphene and rGO (reduced graphene oxide) based strain gauges have typically been prepared on substrates such as silicon, polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene terephthalate, kapton, and rubber. They have mainly been utilized in the wearable and temperate condition applications. In the proposed work we would like to present a stainless steel based pressure sensor using rigid centre diaphragm and a fixed guided beam along with rGO-filter paper based strain gauges (reduced graphene oxide on a cellulose filter paper). The resulting strain on the fixed guided beam due to the applied pressure is sensed by the rGO-filter paper based strain gauges and the output is measured as change in resistance. The analytical, numerical simulation and experimental studies of this sensor are discussed and the results obtained are in good agreement to each other. The performance of the sensor is evaluated experimentally and is compared against a standard strain gauge for a pressure range of 0 to 20 bar. The developed sensor exhibits a pressure sensitivity of 2.29 Ω/bar, with an enhanced gauge factor of 112 and the effect of temperature is nullified. The high sensitivity and a wide sensing range enable it for a broad variety of applications.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the departments of CeNSE, IAP, IISc and department of ICE, NIT Tiruchirappalli for providing systems and facilities to carry out the present work.

References

  1. Anderson DS, Frank N, Sam V, Andreas CF, Fredrik F (2014) Graphene-based piezoresistive pressure sensing for uniaxial and biaxial strains, silicon nanoelectronics workshop (SNW). IEEE Honol.  https://doi.org/10.1109/snw.2014.7348615 Google Scholar
  2. Bae SH, Lee Y, Bhupendra KS, Lee Kim JH, Ahn JH (2013) Graphene-based transparent strain sensor. Carbon 51:236–242.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2012.08.048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhat KN, Nayak MM (2013) MEMS pressure sensors—an overview of challenges in technology and packaging. J ISSS 2:39–71. http://isssonline.in/journal/02paper05.pdf
  4. Biswajit S, Sangwoong B, Lee J (2017) Highly sensitive bendable and foldable paper sensors based on reduced graphene oxide. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:4658–4666.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b10484 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bulut MC, Akbari A, Lai THD, Adrian N, Majumder M, Alan T (2016) Ultrasensitive strain sensor produced by direct patterning of liquid crystals of graphene oxide on a flexible substrate. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:22501–22505.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b06290 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang SP, Mark G (2004) A, Capacitive pressure sensors with stainless steel diaphragm and substrate. J Micromech Microeng 14:612–618.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0960-1317/14/4/023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Conor SB, Umar K, Claudia B, Arlene O, Joe M, Shane D, Ravi Liu Y, Izabela J, Alan BD, Jonathan NC (2014) Sensitive high-strain, high-rate bodily motion sensors based on graphene_rubber composites. ACS Nano 8:8819–8830.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nn503454h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hempel M, Nezich D, Kong J, Hofmann M (2012) A novel class of strain gauges based on layered percolative films of 2D materials. Nano Lett 12:5714–5718.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nl302959a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ho SS, Srihari R, Mehran M (2012) Media compatible stainless steel capacitive pressure sensors. Sens Actuators A Phys 189:134–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2012.09.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Joseph RM, Farzad P, Kurt P, Phillip B, Ted V, Janus B (1990) Low-pressure sensors employing bossed diaphragms and precision etch-stopping. Sens Actuators A Phys 21:89–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0924-4247(90)85018-Y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jun H, Zhou Z, Wen X, Zhang D (2013) A diaphragm-type fiber Bragg grating pressure sensor with temperature compensation. Measurement 46:1041–1046.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2012.10.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lin Y, Dong X, Liu S, Chen S, Wei Y, Liu L (2016) Graphene–elastomer composites with segregated nanostructured network for liquid and strain sensing application. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:24143–24151.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b08587 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu Q, Chen J, Li Y, Shi G (2016) High-performance strain sensors with fish-scale-like graphene-sensing layers for full-range detection of human motions. ACS Nano 10:7901–7906.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.6b03813 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mario DG (1982) Flat and corrugated diaphragm design handbook. In: Faulkner LL, Menkes SB (eds) Flat diaphragm with rigid centre: deflection of a rigid-centre diaphragm due to pressure. Marcel Dekker, Inc publications, New York, pp 157–175Google Scholar
  15. Mohammed G, Hassan N, Ingy B, Sahour S, Ahmed MRF, Koichi N, Osamu T, Ahmed AEM (2014) Graphene-based strain gauge on a flexible substrate. Sens Mater 26:699–709Google Scholar
  16. Nagarjuna N, Venkateswarlu G, Rajanna K, Nayak MM, Srinivas T (2015) Highly flexible and sensitive graphene–silver nanocomposite strain sensor. In: IEEE Proceedings of the sensors, Busan, pp 1677–1680.  https://doi.org/10.1109/icsens.2015.7370612
  17. Nagarjuna N, Venkateswarlu G, Rajanna K, Nayak MM (2016) Negative temperature coefficient behaviour of graphene–silver nanocomposite films for temperature sensor applications. In: Proceedings of the 11th IEEE annual international conference on nano/micro engineered and molecular systems (NEMS), IEEE, Matsushima Bay and Sendai MEMS City, pp 1–4.  https://doi.org/10.1109/nems.2016.7758260
  18. Oberg E, Jones FD, Horton HL, Ryffel HH (2009) Machinery’s handbook, beams, beam calculations. Industrial press Inc, New York, pp 257–264Google Scholar
  19. Pang C, Lee GY (2012) A flexible and highly sensitive strain-gauge sensor using reversible interlocking of nanofibers. Nat Mater 11:795–801.  https://doi.org/10.1038/NMAT3380 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Patrik M, Edvard K, Peter E, Goran S (2002) A free-hanging strain gauge for ultraminatured pressure sensors. Sens Actuators A Phys 97–98:75–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-4247(01)00798-1 Google Scholar
  21. Qin Y, Peng Q, Ding Y, Lin Z, Wang C, Li Y, Xu F, Li J, Yuan Y, He X, Li YN (2015) Lightweight, super elastic and mechanically flexible graphene/polyimide nanocomposite foam for strain sensor application. ACS Nano 9:8933–8941.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.5b02781 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Segev-Bar M, Hossam H (2013) Flexible sensors based on nanoparticles. ACS Nano 7:8366–8378.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nn402728g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sujan Y, Uma G, Umapathy M (2016) Design and testing of piezoelectric resonant pressure sensor. Sens Actuators A 250:177–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2016.09.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sun Y, Feng G, George G, Edip N, Karen N, Chin K (2008) Center embossed diaphragm design guidelines and Fabry–Perot diaphragm fiber optic sensor. Microelectron J 39:711–716.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mejo.2007.12.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Thomas BJ, Nenad GN (2013) Electromechanics and MEMS. In: Stiffness of a guided beam. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 535–537Google Scholar
  26. Tian H, Shu Y, Wang XF (2015) A graphene-based resistive pressure sensor with record-high sensitivity in a wide pressure range. Sci Rep 5:8603.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep08603 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Timoshenko S, Woinowsky-Krieger S (1939) Theory of plates and shells. In: Circular plate with a circular hole at the centre and circular plate loaded at the centre. McGraw-Hill publications, New York, pp 58–78Google Scholar
  28. Yan C, Wang J, Kang W (2014) Highly stretchable piezoresistive graphene–nanocellulose nanopaper for strain sensors. Adv Mater 26:2022–2027.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201304742 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yao HB, Ge J, Wang CF (2013) A flexible and highly pressure-sensitive graphene–polyurethane sponge based on fractured microstructure design. Adv Mater 25:6692–6698.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201303041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yu Z, Zhao Y, Li L, Li C, Zhou G, Tian B (2014) Achievement of a high-sensitive and high-overload sensor based on the bossed-diaphragm structure. In: Proceedings of the 9th IEEE conference on nano/micro engineered and molecular systems, pp 186–190.  https://doi.org/10.1109/nems.2014.6908787
  31. Zhang Z, Cheng X (2012) A steel pressure sensor based on micro-fused glass frit technology. In: IEEE International conference on electronic packaging technology and high density packaging, pp 1582–1585.  https://doi.org/10.1109/icept-hdp.2012.6474909
  32. Zhu SE, Murali KG, Zhang C, Janssen GCAM (2013) Graphene based piezoresistive pressure sensor. Appl Phys Lett 102:161904–1–161904-3.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4802799 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. S. Manjunath
    • 1
  • N. Nagarjuna
    • 2
  • G. Uma
    • 3
  • M. Umapathy
    • 3
  • M. M. Nayak
    • 1
  • K. Rajanna
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Nano Science and EngineeringIIScBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Instrumentation and Applied PhysicsIIScBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Department of Instrumentation and Control EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyTiruchirappalliIndia

Personalised recommendations