Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 2485–2497 | Cite as

Effects of various inlet/outlet positions and header forms on flow distribution and thermal performance in microchannel heat sink

  • Sheng Tang
  • Yaohua Zhao
  • Yanhua Diao
  • Zhenhua Quan
Technical Paper


Three-dimensional simulations are performed numerically to investigate the influence of inlet/outlet positions (Z-, I-, and C-type) and header forms (rectangular, symmetric trapezoidal, and triangular) on the flow and thermal performance in microchannel heat sinks. The conjugated heat transfer model is solved based on finite element method. A good agreement is found between the numerical results and theoretical data. A detailed analysis of flow and pressure distributions is proposed to explain the flow or heat transfer performance of different geometric structures. Results indicate that the performance of I-type with a rectangular header in terms of flow velocity uniformity and heat transfer is better than others under the same pumping power consumption.

List of symbols


Special heat capacity kJ/(kg K)


Friction factor


Thermal conductivity of fluid W/(m K)


Thermal conductivity of solid W/(m K)


Nusselt number

\(\Delta {\text{p}}\)

Pressure drop Pa


Prandtl number


Mass flow rate kg/min


Heat flux W/m2


Reynolds number


Thermal resistance K/W


Temperature °C

Greek symbols


Density kg/m3


Dynamic viscosity kg/(m s)


Pumping power W


Velocity m/s


Volume flow rate m3/s Subscript












Standard deviation







The project was financially supported by the Scientific Research Project of Beijing Educational Committee (Grant no. 004000546315527) and Scientific Research Project of Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Future Internet Technology. The authors are grateful for the support of these sponsors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Built Environment and Energy Efficient TechnologyBeijing University of TechnologyBeijingChina

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