International Journal of Earth Sciences

, Volume 107, Issue 2, pp 431–457 | Cite as

Petrogenesis of late Paleozoic-to-early Mesozoic granitoids and metagabbroic rocks of the Tengchong Block, SW China: implications for the evolution of the eastern Paleo-Tethys

  • Ren-Zhi Zhu
  • Shao-Cong Lai
  • Jiang-Feng Qin
  • Shao-Wei Zhao
Original Paper


This paper presents precise zircon U–Pb, bulk-rock geochemical, and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic data for metagabbro, quartz diorite, and granite units within the Tengchong Block of SW China, which forms the southeastern extension of the Himalayan orogeny and the southwestern section of the Sanjiang orogenic belt, a key region for furthering our understanding of the evolution of the eastern Paleo-Tethys. These data reveal four groups of zircon U–Pb ages that range from the late Paleozoic to the early Mesozoic, including a 263.6 ± 3.6 Ma quartz diorite, a 218.5 ± 5.4 Ma two-mica granite, a 205.7 ± 3.1 Ma metagabbroic unit, and a 195.5 ± 2.2 Ma biotite granite. The quartz diorite in this area contains low concentrations of SiO2 (60.71–64.32 wt%), is sodium-rich, and is metaluminous, indicating formation from magmas generated by a mixed source of metamafic rocks with a significant metapelitic sedimentary material within lower arc crust. The two-mica granites contain high concentrations of SiO2 (73.2–74.3 wt%), are strongly peraluminous, and have evolved Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic compositions, all of which are indicative of a crustal source, most probably from the partial melting of felsic pelite and metagreywacke/psammite material. The metagabbros contain low concentrations of SiO2 (50.17–50.96 wt%), are sodium-rich, contain high concentrations of Fe2O3T (9.79–10.06 wt%) and CaO (6.88–7.12 wt%), and are significantly enriched in the Sr (869–894 ppm) and LREE (198.14–464.60 ppm), indicative of derivation from magmas generated by a metasomatized mantle wedge modified by the sedimentary-derived component. The biotite granites are weakly peraluminous and formed from magmas generated by melting of metasedimentary sources dominated by metagreywacke/psammite material. Combining the petrology and geochemistry of these units with the regional geology of the Indosinian orogenic belt provides evidence for two stages of magmatism: an initial stage that generated magmas during partial melting of mantle-derived material associated with late Permian-to-Early Triassic subduction of the Paleo-Tethys, and a second stage that generated granitoid magmas by the partial melting of crustal-derived sources during the Late Triassic collision between the Lhasa and Tengchong blocks and the northern margin of the Australian continent. These rocks, therefore, provide evidence of a systematic late Permian-to-Late Triassic transition from a pre-collision/volcanic arc setting through a collisional setting to a final within-plate phase of magmatism. The previous research involving bulk-rock Sr–Nd analyses of units from the southern Sanjiang orogenic belt and zircon Hf isotopic analyses of units from the Tengchong Block suggests that these areas may record similar magmatic evolutionary trends from mantle- to crustal-derived sources during the evolution of the eastern Paleo-Tethys.


Late Permian to Late Triassic Metagabbroic rocks Granitoid associations Tengchong Block Eastern Paleo-Tethys 



We thank the constructive and helpful comments from Prof. Wolf-Christan Dullo, Editor-in-Chief, Prof. Wenjiao Xiao and two anonymous reviewers, sincerely. We also thank the English improvement from Dr. Mike Fowler, University of Portsmouth. This study was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grants. 41421002, 41372067, and 41190072] and support was also provided by the MOST Special Fund from the State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Northwest University, and Province Key Laboratory Construction Item [08JZ62].

Supplementary material

531_2017_1501_MOESM1_ESM.doc (500 kb)
Results of zircon LA-ICP-MS U–Pb data for granitoids and metagabbroic rocks from Tengchong Block (DOC 500 kb)


  1. Andersen T (2002) Correction of common lead in U–Pb analyses that do not report 204Pb. Chem Geol 192:59–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Annel C, Blundy JD, Sparks RSJ (2006) The genesis of intermediate and silicic magmas in deep crustal hot zones[J]. J Petrol 47(3):505–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbarin B (1999) A review of the relationships between granitoid types, their origins and their geodynamic environments. Lithos 46:605–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbarin B (2005) Mafic magmatic enclaves and mafic rocks associated with some granitoids of the central Sierra Nevada batholith, California: nature, origin, and relations with the hosts. Lithos 80:155–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batchelor RA, Bowden P (1985) Petrogenetic interpretation of granitoid rock series using multicationic parameters[J]. Chem Geol 48(85):43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ben Othman D, White WM, Patchett J (1989) The geochemistry of marine sediments, island arc magma genesis, and crust-mantle recycling. Earth Planet Sci Lett 94:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonin B (2007) A-type granites and related rocks: evolution of a concept, problems and prospects. Lithos 97:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown M (1994) The generation, segregation, ascent and emplacement of granite magma: the migmatite-to-crustally-derived granite connection in thickened orogens. Earth Sci Rev 36:83–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castro A (2013) Tonalite–granodiorite suites as cotectic systems: a review of experimental studies with applications to granitoid petrogenesis [J]. Earth Sci Rev 124(9):68–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castro A, Gerya T, Garcíacasco A, Fernández C, Díazalvarado J, Morenoventas I, Löw I (2010) Melting relations of MORB-sediment Mélanges in underplated Mantle Wedge Plumes: implications for the origin of cordilleran-type Batholiths. J Petrol 51(6):1267–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chappell BW, White AJR (1974) Two contrasting granite types. Pac Geol 8:173–174Google Scholar
  12. Chappell BW, White AJR (1992) I- and S- type granites in Lachlan Fold Belt. Trans R Soc Edinburgh 83:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carter A, Roques D, Bristow C (2001) Understanding Mesozoic accretion in southeast Asia: significance of Triassic thermotectonism (Indosinian orogen) in Vietnam. Geology 29(3):211–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen F, Li XH, Wang XL, Li QL, Siebel W (2007) Zircon age and Nd-Hf isotopic composition of the Yunnan Tethyan belt, southwestern China. Int J Earth Sci 96(6):1179–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen W, Yang T, Zhang S, Yang Z, Li H, Wu H et al (2012) Paleomagnetic results from the early cretaceous zenong group volcanic rocks, cuoqin, tibet, and their paleogeographic implications. Gondwana Res 22(2):461–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen YL, Zhang KH, Yang ZM, Luo T (2006) Discovery of a complete ophiolite section in the Jueweng area, Nagqu County, in the central segment of the Bangong Co-Nujiang junction zone, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Geol Bull China 25:694–699Google Scholar
  17. Cheng H, Liu Y, Vervoort JD, Lu H (2015) Combined U–Pb, Lu–Hf, Sm–Nd and Ar–Ar multichronometric dating on the Bailang eclogite constrains the closure timing of the Paleo-tethys ocean in the Lhasa Terrane, Tibet. Gondwana Res 28(4):1482–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chu ZY, Chen FK, Yang YH, Guo JH (2009) Precise determination of Sm, Nd concentrations and Nd isotopic compositions at the nanogram level in geological samples by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom 24:1534–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clemens JD (2003) S-type granitic magmas-petrogenetic issues, models and evidence. Earth Sci Rev 61:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cong BL, Wu GY, Zhang Q, Zhang RY, Zhai MG, Zhao DS, Zhang WH (1993) Petrotectonic evolution of the Tethys zone in western Yunnan, China. Chin Bull (B) 23(11):1201–1207 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  21. Cong F, Lin SL, Zou GF, Li ZH, Xie T, Peng ZM, Liang T (2010) Trace elements and Hf isotope compositions and U-Pb age of igneous zircons from the triassic granite in Lianghe, Western Yunnan. Acta Geol Sin 84:1155–1164Google Scholar
  22. Defant MJ, Drummond MS (1990) Derivation of some modern arc magmas by melting of young subducted lithosphere. Nature 347:662–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De la Roche H, Leterrier J, Grandclaude P, Marchal M (1980) A classification ofvolcanic and plutonic rocks using R1R2-diagram and major-element analyses –its relationships with current nomenclature. Chem Geol 29:183–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deng J, Wang QF, Li GJ, Li CS, Wang CM (2014) Tethys tectonic evolution and its bearing on the distribution of important mineral deposits in the Sanjiang region, SW China. Gondwana Research 26(2):419–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dewey JF, Shackleton RM, Chang CF (1988) The tectonic evolution of the Tibetan plateau. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser A Math Phys Sci [J] 327:379–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Elliott T (2003) Tracers of the slab. In: Eiler J (ed) Inside the subduction factory, vol 138. American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph, Washington DC, pp 23–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fan W, Wang Y, Zhang A, Zhang F, Zhang Y (2010) Permian arc-back-arc basin development along the Ailaoshan tectonic zone: geochemical, isotopic and geochronological evidence from the Mojiang volcanic rocks, southwest China. Lithos 119(3):553–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Feeley TC, Hacker MD (1995) Intracrustal derivation of Na-rich andesitic and dacitic magmas: an example from volcán ollagüe, Andean central volcanic zone. J Geol 103(2):213–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Feng QL, Chonglakmanib CP, Helmckec D, Ingavat-Helmckec R, Liua BP (2005) Correlation of Triassic stratigraphy between the Simao and Lampang–Phrae Basins: implications for the tectonopaleogeography of Southeast Asia. J Asian Earth Sci 24:777–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ferguson EM, Klein EM (1993) Fresh basalts from the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge extend the Pacific geochemical province. Nature 366:330–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Foley S, Tiepolo M, Vannucci R (2002) Growth of early continental crust controlled by melting of amphibolite in subduction zones. Nature 417:837–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Frost TP, Mahood GA (1987) Field, chemical, and physical constraints on mafic-felsic magma interaction in the Lamarck Granodiorite, Sierra Nevada, California. Geol Soc Am Bull 99:272–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Frost BR, Barnes CG, Collins WJ, Arculus RJ, Ellis DJ, Frost CD (2001) A geochemical classification for granitic rocks. J Petrol 42(11):2033–2048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gaudemer Y, Jaupart C, Tapponnier P (1988) Thermal control on post-orogenic extension in collision belts. Earth Planet Sci Lett 89(1):48–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Han BF (2007) Diverse post-collisional granitoids and their tectonic setting discrimination. Earth Sci Front 14(3):64–72 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  36. Hart SR (1984) A large-scale isotope anomaly in the Southern Hemisphere mantle. Nature 309:753–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. He ZH, Yang DM, Zheng CQ, Wang TW (2006) Isotopic dating of the Mamba granitoid in the Gangdese tectonic belt and its constraint on the subduction time of the Neotethys. Geol Rev 52(1):100–106 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  38. Hennig D, Lehmann B, Frei D, Belyatsky B, Zhao XF, Cabral AR, Zeng PS, Zhou MF, Schmidt K (2009) Early permian seafloor to continental arc magmatism in the eastern Paleo-tethys: U–Pb age and Nd–Sr isotope data from the southern Lancangjiang zone, Yunnan, China. Lithos 113(3):408–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hoskin PWO, Schaltegger U (2003) The composition of zircon and igneous and metamorphic petrogenesis. Rev Miner Geochem 53:27–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huang ZY, Qi XX, Tang GZ, Liu JK, Zhu LH, Hu ZC, Zhao YH, Zhang C (2013) The identification of early Indosinian tectonic movement in Tengchong block, western Yunnan: evidence of zircon U–Pb dating and Lu–Hf isotope for Nabang diorite. Geol China 40(3):730–741 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  41. Hutchison CS (1989) Geological evolution of South-east Asia. Clarendon, Oxford and New York, pp 1–368Google Scholar
  42. Janoušek V, Finger F, Roberts M, Frýda J, Pin C, Dolejš D (2004) Deciphering the petrogenesis of deeply buried granites: whole-rock geochemical constraints on the origin of largely undepleted felsic granulites from the Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 389:141–159Google Scholar
  43. Jian P, Liu DY, Sun XM (2004) SHRIMP dating of Jicha Alaskan-type gabbro in western Yunnan Province: evidence for the early Permian subduction. Acta Geol Sin 78:165–170Google Scholar
  44. Jian P, Liu DY, Sun XM (2008) SHRIMP dating of the Permo-Carboniferous Jinshajiang ophiolite, southwestern China: geochronological constraints for the evolution of Paleo-Tethys. J Asian Earth Sci 32:371–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jian P, Liu DY, Kröner A, Zhang Q, Wang YZ, Sun XM, Zhang W (2009a) Devonian to Permian plate tectonic cycle of the Paleo-Tethys Orogen in southwest China (II): insights from zircon ages of ophiolites, arc/back-arc assemblages and within-plate igneous rocks and generation of the Emeishan CFB province. Lithos 113:767–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jian P, Liu DY, Kröner A, Zhang Q, Wang YZ, Sun XM, Zhang W (2009b) Devonian to Permian plate tectonic cycle of the Paleo-Tethys Orogen in southwest China (I): geochemistry of ophiolites, arc/back-arc assemblages and within-plate igneous rocks. Lithos 113:748–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jin XC (1996) Tectono-stratigraphic units in western Yunnan and their counterparts in southeast Asia. Cont Dyn 1:123–133Google Scholar
  48. Jin X et al (2002) Permo-Carboniferous sequences of Gondwana affinity in southwest China and their paleogeographic implications. J Asian Earth Sci 6:633–646Google Scholar
  49. Kapp P, Yin A, Harrison TM (2005) Cretaceous-Tertiary shortening, basin development, and volcanism in central Tibet [J]. Geol Soc Am Bull 117:865–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Koteas GC, Williams ML, Seaman SJ, Dumond G (2010) Granite genesis and mafic-felsic magma interaction in the lower crust. Geology 38:1067–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kou KH, Zhang ZC, Santosh M, Huang H, Hou T, Liao BL, Li HB (2012) Picritic porphyrites generated in a slab-window setting: implications for the transition from Paleo-Tethyan to Neo-Tethyan tectonics. Lithos 155:375–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Li HQ (2009) The geological significance of Indosinian orogenesis occurred in the Lhasa Terrane, Tibet. Ph.D. Dissertation. Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing (in Chinese with English summary)Google Scholar
  53. Li C, Wang TW, Li HM, Zeng QG (2003) Discovery of Indosinian megaporphyritic granodiorite in the Gangdese area: evidence for the existence of Paleo-Gangdise. Geol Bull China 22(5):364–366 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  54. Li XZ, Liu CJ, Ding J (2004) Correlation and connection of the main suture zones in the Greater Mekong subregion [J]. Sediment Geol Tethyan Geol 4:001Google Scholar
  55. Li ZH, Lin SL, Cong F, Zou GF, Xie T (2010) Indosinian orogenesis of the Tengchong- Lianghe block, Western Yunnan: evidence from zircon U- Pb dating and petrogenesis of granitoids. Acta Petrological et Mineralogica 29(3):298–312Google Scholar
  56. Li HQ, Xu ZQ, Cai ZH, Tang ZM, Yang M (2011) Indosinian epoch magmatic event and geological significance in the Tengchong block, western Yunnan Province. Acta Petrologica Sinica 27(7):2165–2172Google Scholar
  57. Liu QS, Jiang W, Jian P, Ye PS, Wu ZH, Hu DG (2006) Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age and petrochemical and geochemical features of Mesozoic muscovite monzonitic granite at Ningzhong, Tibet. Acta Petrologica Sinica 22(3):643–652 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  58. Ludwig KR (2003) ISOPLOT 3.0: a geochronological toolkit for Microsoft Excel. Special Publication No. 4 Berkeley Geochronology CenterGoogle Scholar
  59. Mahawat C, Atherton MP, Brotherton MS (1990) The Tak batholith, Thailand: the evolution of contrasting granite types and implications for tectonic setting. J Southeast Asian Earth Sci 4:11–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mahoney JJ, Frel R, Tejada MLG, Mo XX, Leat PT, Nägler TF (1998) Tracing the Indian Ocean mantle domain through time: isotopic results from old west Indian, east Tethyan, and south Pacific seafloor. J Petrol 39:1285–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Martin H, Smithies RH, Rapp R, Moyen JF, Champion D (2005) An overview of adakite, tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite TTG, and sanukitoid: relationships and some implications for crustal evolution. Lithos 79:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Meng Y, Xu Z, Santosh M, Ma X, Chen X, Guo G et al (2016) Late Triassic crustal growth in southern Tibet: evidence from the Gangdese magmatic belt. Gondwana Res 37:449–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Metcalfe I (1996a) Pre-cretaceous evolution of SE Asian terranes. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 106(1):97–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Metcalfe I (1996b) Gondwanaland dispersion, Asian accretion and evolution of eastern Tethys. Aust J Earth Sci 43(6):605–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Metcalfe I (2002) Permian tectonic framework and palaeogeography of SE Asia. J Asian Earth Sci 20(6):551–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Metcalfe I (2013) Gondwana dispersion and Asian accretion: tectonic and paleogeography evolution of eastern Tethys. J Asian Earth Sci 66:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Middlemost EAK (1994) Naming materials in the magma/igneous rock system. Earth Sci Rev 37:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Miyashiro A (1974) Volcanic rock series in island arcs and active continental margins. Am J Sci 274(4):321–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mo XX, Shen SY, Zhu QW (1998) Volcanics-ophiolite and mineralization of middle and southern part in Sanjiang, southern China. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, pp 1–128 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  70. Nam TN, Sano Y, Terada K, Toriumi M, Quynh PV, Le TD (2001) First shrimp U–Pb zircon dating of granulites from the kontum massif (vietnam) and tectonothermal implications. J Asian Earth Sci 19(1–2):77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Patiño Douce AE (1999) What do experiments tell us about the relative contributions of crust and mantle to the origin of the granitic magmas. Geol Soc Lond 168:55–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pearce JA (1982) Trace element characteristics of lavas from destructive plate boundaries. In: Thorpe RS (ed) Andesites. Wiley, Chichester, pp 525–548Google Scholar
  73. Pearce JA, Harris NBW, Tindle AG (1984) Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. J Petrol 25:956–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Peng TP, Wang YP, Zhao GC, Fan WM, Peng BX (2008) Arc-like volcanic rocks from the southern Lancangjiang zone, SW China: geochronological and geochemical constraints on their petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Lithos 102:358–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Peng TP, Wilde SA, Wang YJ, Fan WM, Peng BX (2013) Mid-Triassic felsic igneous rocks from the southern Lancangjiang zone, SW China: petrogenesis and implications for the evolution of Paleo-tethys. Lithos 168(2):15–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Petrford N, Atherton M (1996) Na-rich partial melts from newly underplated basaltic crust: the Cordillera Blanca Batholith, Peru. J Petrol 37:1491–1521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pitcher W (1983) Granite types and tectonic environment. In: Hsu K (ed) Mountain building processes. Academic, London, pp 19–40Google Scholar
  78. Plank T (2005) Constraints from thorium/lanthanumon sediment recycling at subduction zones and the evolution of the continents. J Petrol 46:921–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Plank T, Langmuir CH (1998) The chemical composition of subducting sediment and its consequences for the crust and mantle. Chem Geol 145(3–4):325–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Price RC, Kennedy AK, Riggs-Sneeringer M, Frey FA (1986) Geochemistry of basalts from the Indian Ocean Triple Junction: implication for the generation and evolution of Indian Ocean Ridge basalts. Earth Planet Sci Lett 78:379–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Qi L, Hu J, Gregoire DC (2000) Determination of trace elements in granites by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Talanta 51:507–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rapp RP, Watson EB (1995) Dehydration melting of metabasalt at 8–32 kbar: implications for continental growth and crust–mantle recycling. J Petrol 36:891–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ratajeski K, Sisson TW, Glazner AF (2005) Experimental and geochemical evidence for derivation of the el capitan granite, california, by partial melting of hydrous gabbroic lower crust. Contrib Miner Petrol 149(6):713–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rudnick RL, Barth MG, Horn I, McDonough WF (2000) Rutile-bearing refractory eclogites: missing link between continents and depleted mantle. Science 287:278–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rushmer T (1991) Partial melting of two amphibolites: contrasting experimental results under fluid-absent conditions. Contrib Miner Petrol 107:41–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Saunders AD, Norry MJ, Tarney J (1988) Origin of MORB and chemically depleted mantle reservoirs: trace element constraints. J Petrol Spec (1):415–445Google Scholar
  87. Sengör AMC (1984) The Cimmeride orogenic system and the tectonics of Eurasia. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 195:1–82Google Scholar
  88. Song SG, Niu YL, Wei CJ, Ji JQ, Su L (2010) Metamorphism, anatexis, zircon ages and tectonic evolution of the Gongshan block in the northern Indochina continent—an eastern extension of the Lhasa Block. Lithos 120:327–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Springer W, Seck HA (1997) Partial fusion of basic granulites at 5 to 15 kbar: implications for the origin of TTG magmas. Contrib Miner Petrol 127:30–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stern RJ, Kohut E, Bloomer SH, Leybourne M, Fouch M, Vervoort J (2006) Subduction factory processes beneath the guguan cross-chain, mariana arc: no role for sediments, are serpentinites important? Contrib Miner Petrol 151(2):202–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stolz AJ, Vame R, Wheller GE, Foden JD, Abbott MJ (1988) The geochemistry and petrogenesis of K-rich alkaline volcanics from the Batu Tara volcano, eastern Sunda Arc. Contrib Miner Petrol 98:374–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stolz AJ, Vame R, Davies GR, Wheller GE, Foden JD (1990) Magma source components in an arc–continent collision zone: the Flores-Lembata sector, Sunda Arc, Indonesia. Contrib Miner Petrol 105:585–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sun SS, McDonough WF (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications or mantle composition and processes. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 42(1):313–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sylvester PJ (1989) Post-collisional alkaline granites. J Geol 97:261–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sylvester PJ (1998) Postcollisional strongly peraluminous granites. Lithos 45:29–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Van Der Voo R (1993) Paleomagnetism of the Atlantic, Tethys and Iapetus oceans. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  97. Wang X, Metcalfe I, Jian P, He L, Wang C (2000) The Jinshajiang–Ailaoshan Suture Zone, China: tectonostratigraphy, age and evolution. J Asian Earth Sci 18:675–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wang YJ, Fan WM, Zhang YH, Peng TP, Chen XY, Xu YG (2006) Kinematics and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Gaoligong and Chongshan shear systems, western Yunnan, China: implications for early Oligocene tectonic extrusion of SE Asia. Tectonophysics 418:235–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wang L, Pan G, Zhu D (2008) Carboniferous-Permian island arc Gangdise belt, Tibet, China: evidence from volcanic rocks and geochemistry[J]. Geol Bull China 27(9):1509–1534 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  100. Wang YJ, Zhang AM, Fan WM, Peng TP, Zhang FF, Zhang YH, Bi XW (2010) Petrogenesis of late Triassic post-collisional basaltic rocks of the Lancangjiang tectonic zone, southwest China, and tectonic implications for the evolution of the eastern Paleotethys: geochronological and geochemical constraints. Lithos 120(3–4):529–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang YJ, Xing XW, Cawood PA, Lai SC, Xia XP, Fan WM, Liu HC, Zhang FF (2013) Petrogenesis of early Paleozoic peraluminous granite in the Sibumasu Block of SW Yunnan and diachronous accretionary orogenesis along the northern margin of Gondwana. Lithos 182:67–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wang CM, Deng J, Emmanuel JM, Carranza Santosh M (2014) Tin metallogenesis associated with granitoids in the southwestern Sanjiang Tethyan Domain: nature, deposit types, and tectonic setting. Gondwana Res 26(2):576–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wang Y, Li S, Ma L, Fan W, Cai Y, Zhang Y et al (2015) Geochronological and geochemical constraints on the petrogenesis of early Eocene metagabbroic rocks in Nabang (SW Yunnan) and its implications on the NeoTethyan slab subduction. Gondwana Res 27(4):1474–1486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wang Y, He H, Cawood PA, Fan W, Srithai B, Feng Q et al (2016) Geochronological, elemental and Sr–Nd–Hf–O isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of the Triassic post-collisional granitic rocks in NW Thailand and its Paleotethyan implications. Lithos 266–267:264–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wolf MB, Wyllie PJ (1994) Dehydration-melting of amphibolite at 10 kbar: the effects of temperature and time. Contrib Miner Petrol 115(4):369–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Xiao L, Xu YG, Chung SL, He B, Mei H (2003) Chemostratigraphic correlation of upper Permian lavas from Yunnan province, China: extent of the Emeishan large igneous province. Int Geol Rev 45(8):753–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Xiao L, He Q, Pirajno F, Ni P, Du J, Wei Q (2004) Possible correlation between a mantle plume and the evolution of Paleo-Tethys Jinshajiang ocean: evidence from a volcanic rifted margin in the Xiaru-Tuoding area, Yunnan, SW China. Lithos 100(1):112–126Google Scholar
  108. Xie JC, Zhu DC, Dong G, Zhao ZD, Wang Q, Mo X (2016) Linking the Tengchong terrane in SW Yunnan with the Lhasa terrane in southern Tibet through magmatic correlation. Gondwana Res 39:217–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Xu X, Yang J, Li T (2007) SHRIMP U–Pb ages and inclusions of zircons from the Sumdo eclogite in the Lhasa block, Tibet, China[J]. Geol Bull China 26(10):1340–1355 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  110. Xu YG, Lan JB, Yang QJ, Huang XL, Qiu HN (2008) Eocene break-off of the Neo-Tethyan slab as inferred from intraplate-type mafic dykes in the Gaoligong orogenic belt, eastern Tibet. Chem Geol 255:439–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Xu YG, Yang QJ, Lan JB, Luo ZY, Huang XL, Shi YR, Xie LW (2012) Temporal-spatial distribution and tectonic implications of the batholiths in the Gaoligong-Tengliang-Yingjiang area, western Yunnan: constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes. J Asian Earth Sci 53:151–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Yang JS, Xu ZQ, Li TF, Li HQ, Li ZL, Ren YF, Xu XZ, Chen SY (2007) Oceanic subduction-type eclogite in the Lhasa block, Tibet, China: remains of the Paleo-Tethys ocean basin? Geol Bull China 26(10):1277–1287Google Scholar
  113. Yang J, Xu Z, Li Z, Xu X, Li T, Ren Y, Li H, Chen S, Robinson PT (2009) Discovery of an eclogite belt in the lhasa block, tibet: a new border for Paleo-Tethys? J Asian Earth Sci 34(1):76–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yang TN, Ding Y, Zhang HR, Fan JW, Liang MJ, Wang XH (2014) Two-phase subduction and subsequent collision defines the Paleotethyan tectonics of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau: evidence from zircon U-Pb dating, geochemistry, and structural geology of the Sanjiang orogenic belt, southwest China. Geol Soc Am Bull 126(11/12):1654–1682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Y.B.G.M.R. (Yunnan Bureau Geological Mineral Resource) (1990) Regional geology of Yunnan Province. Geology Publication House, Beijing, pp 1–729 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  116. Yin A, Harrison TM (2000) Geologic evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogeny. Earth Planet Sci Lett 28:211–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Yuan HL, Gao S, Liu XM, Li HM, Gunther D, Wu FY (2004) Accurate U-Pb age and trace element determinations of zircon by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Geo-standard Newsl 28:353–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zen E (1986) Aluminum enrichment in silicate melts by fractional crystallization: some mineralogical and petrographical constrains. J Petrol 27:1095–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zhai QG, Jahn BM, Su L, Wang J, Mo XX, Lee HY, Wang KL, Tang S (2013) Triassic arc magmatism in the Qiangtang area, northern Tibet: zircon U–Pb ages, geochemical and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic characteristics, and tectonic implications. J Asian Earth Sci 63:162–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zhang HF, Xu WC, Guo JQ, Zone KQ, Cai HM, Yuan HL (2007) Indosinian orogenesis of the gangdise terrane: evidences of zircon U-Pb dating and petrogenesis of granitoids. Earth Sci 32(2):155–166 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  121. Zhang ZM, Wang JL, Shen K, Shi C (2008) Paleozoic circus-Gondwana orogens: petrology and geochronology of the Namche Barwa Complex in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, Tibet. Acta Petrologica Sinica 24:1627–1637 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  122. Zhang KJ, Tang XC, Wang Y, Zhang YX (2011) Geochronology, geochemistry, and Nd isotopes of early Mesozoic bimodal volcanismin northern Tibet, western China: constraints on the exhumation of the central Qiangtang metamorphic belt. Lithos 121:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zhang ZM, Dong X, Santosh M, Liu F, Wang W, Yiu F, He ZY, Shen K (2012) Petrology and geochronology of the Namche Barwa Complex in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, Tibet: constrains on the origin and evolution of the north-eastern margin of the Indian craton. Gondwana Res 21:123–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zhao SW, Lai SC, Qin JF, Zhu RZ (2016) Tectono-magmatic evolution of the gaoligong belt, southeastern margin of the tibetan plateau: constraints from granitic gneisses and granitoid intrusions. Gondwana Res 1(1):56–66Google Scholar
  125. Zhao CF et al (1999) Variscan and Indosinian granites in northern Tengchong, Yunnan. Reg Geol China 18(3):260–263Google Scholar
  126. Zheng LL, Geng QR, Dong H, Ou CS, Wang XW (2003) The discovery and significance of the relicts of ophiolitic mélanges along the Parlung Zangbo in the Bomi region, eastern Xizang. Sediment Geol Tethyan Geol 23(1):27–30 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  127. Zhong DL (1998) The paleotethys orogenic belt in west of Sichuan and Yunnan. Science Publishing House, Beijing, pp 1–230 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  128. Zhong DL (2000) Paleotethys sides in West Yunnan and Sichuan, China. Science, Beijing, pp 1–248 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  129. Zhu D, Mo X, Niu Y (2009) Zircon U–Pb dating and in situ Hf isotopic analysis of Permian peraluminous granite in the Lhasa terrane, southern Tibet: implications for Permian collisional orogeny and paleogeography[J]. Tectonophysics 469:48–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zhu DC, Zhao ZD, Niu YL, Dilek Y, Hou ZQ, Mo XX (2013) The origin and pre-Cenozoic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Gondwana Res 23:1429–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zhu DC, Zhao ZD, Niu YL, Mo XX, Chung SL, Hou ZQ, Wang LQ, Wu FY (2011) The Lhasa Terrane: Record of a microcontinent and its histories of drift and growth. Earth Planet Sci Lett 301:241–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zi JW, Cawood PA, Fan WM, Tohver E, Wang YJ, Mccuaig TC (2012a) Generation of early Indosinian enriched mantle-derived granitoid pluton in the Sanjiang orogen (SW China) in response to closure of the Paleo-Tethys. Lithos 140(5):166–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zi JW, Cawood PA, Fan WM, Wang YJ, Tohver E, Mccuaig TC, Peng TP (2012b) Triassic collision in the Paleo-Tethys ocean constrained by volcanic activity in SW China. Lithos 144(7):145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zi JW, Cawood PA, Fan WM, Tohver E, Wang YJ, Mccuaig TC et al (2013) Late permian-triassic magmatic evolution in the Jinshajiang orogenic belt, sw china and implications for orogenic processes following closure of the paleo-tethys. Am J Sci 313(2):81–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zindle A, Hart SR (1986) Chemical geodynamics. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 14:493–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Zou GF, Lin SL, Li ZH, Cong F, Xie T (2011) Geochronology and geochemistry of the Longtang granite in the Lianghe area, Western Yunnan and its tectonic implications. Geotectonica et Metallogenia 35:439–451Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ren-Zhi Zhu
    • 1
  • Shao-Cong Lai
    • 1
  • Jiang-Feng Qin
    • 1
  • Shao-Wei Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Department of GeologyNorthwest UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations