L1-norm Laplacian support vector machine for data reduction in semi-supervised learning

Abstract

As a semi-supervised learning method, Laplacian support vector machine (LapSVM) is popular. Unfortunately, the model generated by LapSVM has a poor sparsity. A sparse decision model has always been fascinating because it could implement data reduction and improve performance. To generate a sparse model of LapSVM, we propose an \(\ell _1\)-norm Laplacian support vector machine (\(\ell _1\)-norm LapSVM), which replaces the \(\ell _2\)-norm with the \(\ell _1\)-norm in LapSVM. The \(\ell _1\)-norm LapSVM has two techniques that can induce sparsity: the \(\ell _1\)-norm regularization and the hinge loss function. We discuss two situations for the \(\ell _1\)-norm LapSVM, linear and nonlinear ones. In the linear \(\ell _1\)-norm LapSVM, the sparse decision model implies that features with nonzero coefficients are contributive. In other words, the linear \(\ell _1\)-norm LapSVM can perform feature selection to achieve the goal of data reduction. Moreover, the nonlinear (kernel) \(\ell _1\)-norm LapSVM can also implement data reduction in terms of sample selection. In addition, the optimization problem of the \(\ell _1\)-norm LapSVM is a convex quadratic programming one. That is, the \(\ell _1\)-norm LapSVM has a unique and global solution. Experimental results on semi-supervised classification tasks have shown a comparable performance of our \(\ell _1\)-norm LapSVM.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank three anonymous reviewers and Editor Zhao for their valuable comments and suggestions, which have significantly improved this paper.

Funding

This work was supported in part by the Natural Science Foundation of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions of China under Grant No. 19KJA550002, by the Six Talent Peak Project of Jiangsu Province of China under Grant No. XYDXX-054, by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and by the Collaborative Innovation Center of Novel Software Technology and Industrialization.

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Correspondence to Li Zhang.

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Zheng, X., Zhang, L. & Xu, Z. L1-norm Laplacian support vector machine for data reduction in semi-supervised learning. Neural Comput & Applic (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00521-020-05609-9

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Keywords

  • Semi-supervised learning
  • Support vector machine
  • \(\ell _1\)-norm regularization
  • Laplacian regularization