Skip to main content
Log in

First record of off-season flowering in Populus deltoides from India: paradigm of climate change indicator

International Journal of Biometeorology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Cite this article


Populus deltoides is a fast-growing woody species possessing plethora of industrial applications. This species evolutionarily developed unisexual male and female catkin inflorescence on separate trees. Flowering usually occurs during early spring before the development of foliage, where buds appear near axils or at the extending shoots. In 2019, surveys were undertaken to study the flowering pattern of P. deltoides in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand in northern India. Interestingly, an anomalous flowering behaviour (appearance of off-season male catkins during autumn, i.e. October) was observed in a plantation trial at Kapurthala, Punjab. The male catkins were 2.7–3.1 ± 0.07 cm long and 0.3–0.5 ± 0.03 cm wide, which is significant for flowering and liberation of pollen grains. Preliminary results suggested that climatic factors, such as episodes of high or low temperature and the precipitation variation forcing the tree species to behave differently. Unearthing the climate-driven off-season flowering in other tree species alluded the stimulation of phytohormones, such as gibberellic and salicylic acid concentrations influencing the flowering time, therefore, needs further investigation in case of P. deltoides. Overall, this work provides early clues of changing climatic scenario altering the flowering pattern of a tropical forestry tree species.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


Download references


The authors are grateful to the Director, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, for providing research facilities during the compilation of the manuscript. Authors wish to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on early version of the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Maneesh S. Bhandari.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Thapliyal, G., Vemanna, R.S., Pawar, P.M. et al. First record of off-season flowering in Populus deltoides from India: paradigm of climate change indicator. Int J Biometeorol 64, 1629–1634 (2020).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: