Skip to main content

Variability of bio-climatology indicators in the Southwest China under climate warming during 1961–2015


Southwest China (SWC), characterized by complex climate, undulating topography, intertwined mountains and basins, and diverse ecosystem, is a global hotspot in biodiversity. SWC also is sensitive to climate change, the effects of which can be expressed through alterations in bio-climatology indicators. In this study, we investigated the trends of the key bio-climatology indicators, including mean temperature of the warmest month (TWM), mean temperature of the coldest month (TCM), accumulated temperature above 5 °C (AT5) and 10 °C (AT10), number of days with daily mean temperature above 5 °C (DT5) and 10 °C (DT10), annual precipitation (P), precipitation days (DP), and moisture index (MI). The 105 meteorological stations data from 1961 to 2015 were selected to examine the trend of these indexes in SWC. The results suggested that TWM and TCM both experienced a significant upward trend, with the more pronounced increase in TCM than that in TWM. TWM increased by 0.011 °C year−1 and TCM increased by 0.025 °C year−1. AT5, AT10, DT5, and DT10 also exhibited increasing trend, with AT10 > AT5 and DT10 > DT5, and the trend in DT was found to be less significant than that in AT. The increment of AT5, AT10, DT5, and DT10 were 6.452 °C year−1, 7.158 °C year−1, 0.164 days year−1, and 0.263 days year−1, respectively. P, DP, and MI showed a downward trend, among which DP experienced a significant decrease with − 1.018 days year−1. In general, SWC tends to be drier and warmer, which may alter the structure and function of the local ecosystem, further then affect the role as a global diversity hotspot.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11


Download references


This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFA0604803) and Project of Featured Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research Cultivation, CAS: the Decision Support Research of the Belt and Road Initiative, and was also supported by Hebei Normal University Graduate Student Innovation Project (CXZZSS2018074).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dongsheng Zhao.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yang, Y., Zhao, D. & Chen, H. Variability of bio-climatology indicators in the Southwest China under climate warming during 1961–2015. Int J Biometeorol 63, 107–119 (2019).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Climate warming
  • Southwest China
  • Bio-climatology
  • Trends