Skip to main content


Log in

The insight of agricultural adaptation to climate change: a case of rice growers in Eastern Himalaya, India

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
International Journal of Biometeorology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Adaptation is crucial to curb down the negative impact of climate change particularly on agricultural sector. Hence, a study was conducted to identify the strategies adopted by the cereal growers in Eastern Himalaya region of India and determine the factors affecting them. A total 120 farmers were surveyed from Senapati district in Manipur and East Sikkim district in Sikkim. The widely adopted strategies were the change in transplanting time and change in transplanting as well as harvesting time, which were autonomous, traditional, and taken in response to the scarcity of water. Tobit model has identified that the area under rice cultivation, support received from Village Science Centre, and decline in food availability positively influenced the farmers to adapt to climate change. Multinomial logit model revealed that the female farmers, area under rice cultivation, and decline in rice productivity positively influenced the adoption of the strategies, whereas number of cattle owned, irrigated area, and support from Agricultural Department revealed the negative influence. To sustain farming in hill agriculture, the study recommends the integration of the farmers’ knowledge along with scientific measures. Planned intervention, viz., in the form of construction of water harvesting structure, should be initiated by the State Government.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Above mean sea level

  2. The walls or roof is made of either burnt bricks, bamboos, mud, grass, reeds, thatch, or loosely packed stone.

  3. The walls and roof are made of burnt bricks, stones (packed with lime or cement), cement concrete, and timber.


  • Adesina AA, Zinnah MM (1993) Technology characteristics, farmers’ perceptions and adoption decisions: a Tobit model application in Sierra Leone. Agric Econ 9:297–311

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Adger WN, Vincent K (2005) Uncertainty in adaptive capacity. C R Geol Sci 337:339–410

    Google Scholar 

  • Adger WN, Dessai S, Goulden M, Hulme M, Lorenzoni I, Nelson DR, Naess LO, Wolf J, Wreford A (2009) Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change? Clim Chang 93:335–354

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aggarwal PK (2008) Global climate change and Indian agriculture: impacts, adaptation and mitigation. Indian J Agric Sci 78(10):911–917

    Google Scholar 

  • Agyei PA, Stringer LC, Dougill AJ (2014) Livelihood adaptations to climate variability: insights from farming households in Ghana. Reg Environ Chang 141:1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ATREE (2017) Perception of viability in agriculture. Eastern Himalaya 3(1). Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment

  • Berry PM, Rounsevell MDA, Harrison PA, Audsley E (2006) Assessing the vulnerability of agricultural land use and species to climate change and the role of policy in facilitating adaptation. Environ Sci Pol 9:189–204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burton I, Diringer E, Smith J (2006) Adaptation to climate change: International policy options. Pew center on the global climate change, pp 3

  • Campbell BM, Vermeulen SJ, Aggarwal PK, Dolloff CC, Girvetz E, Loboguerrero A, Villegas JR, Rosenstock T, Sebastian L, Thornton PK, Wollenberg E (2016) Reducing risks to food security from climate change. Glob Food Secur 11:36–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carson RT, Sun Y (2007) The Tobit model with a non-zero threshold. Econ J 10:488–502

    Google Scholar 

  • Chettri N, Sharma E, Shakya B, Thapa R, Bajracharya B, Uddin K, Oli KP, Choudhury D (2010) Biodiversity in the Eastern Himalayas: status, trends and vulnerability to climate change. Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability in the Eastern Himalayas – Technical Report 2. ICIMOD

  • Cornall J, Bett R, Burke E, Clark R, Camp J, Willett K, Wiltshire A (2015) Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century. Philos Trans R Soc B 365:2973–2989

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Das A, Ghosh PK, Choudhury BU, Patel DP, Munda GC, Ngachan SV, Chowdhury P (2009) Climate change in North East India: recent facts and events –worry for agricultural management. Proceedings of workshop on impact of climate change on agriculture 32–37, December 17–18, 2008. Ahmedabad, India

  • Deressa T, Hassan RM, Alemu T, Yesuf M, Ringler C (2008) Analyzing the determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods and perceptions of climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. IFPRI discussion paper 00798, September 2008

  • Deressa TT, Hassan RM, Ringler C, Alemu T, Yusuf M (2009) Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Glob Environ Chang.

  • Deressa T, Hassan RM, Ringler C (2010) Perception of and adaptation to climate change by farmers in the Nile basin of Ethiopia. J Agric Sci 149(1):1–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dwivedy N, Upadhyay N, Jha A (2012) Female farmer’s views to leave farming: a study of rural area of Sikkim in North-Eastern India. Res J Commer Behav Sci 1(10):28–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Etwire PM (2011) Adaptation responses of small holder farmers to climate change and variability in Northern Ghana. Dissertion, University of Ghana, (Legon) Ghana

  • Fisher G, Shah M Van Velthuizen H, Nachtergaele FO (2001) Global agro-ecological assessment for agriculture in the 21st century, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria

  • Ford LB, Ford JD, Paterson J (2011) Are we adapting to climate change? Glob Environ Chang 21:25–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gbetibouo AW (2009) Understanding farmers’ perceptions and adaptations to climate change and variability: The case of the Limpopo Basin, South Africa. IFPRI discussion paper 00849, February 2009

  • Ghimire NP, Aryal M (2013) Analysis of perception and adaptation to climate change by farmers in Gulmi district, Nepal. J Agric Environ 14:39–51

    Google Scholar 

  • GoI (2013) Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2013. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture. Government of India

  • GoI (2015) Basic Statistics of Northeastern Region 2015. North Eastern Council Secretariat Issue No 14, Government of India

  • GoM (2014) Economic Survey of Manipur 2013–14. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Manipur, Imphal

  • GoM (2015) Economic Survey of Manipur 2015–16, Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Government of Manipur, Imphal

  • GoS (2014) Comprehensive progress report 2014: Sikkim organic mission. Government of Sikkim, Gangtok

  • Greene WH (2003) Econometric analysis. New-York, NY: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

  • Gujarati DM, Porter DC, Gunasekar S (2012) Basic econometrics. Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  • ICIMOD (2010) Climate change vulnerability of mountain ecosystems in the Eastern Himalayas. Synthesis report of climate change impact and vulnerability in the EH’. June, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal

  • Idrisa YL, Ogunbameru BO, Ibrahim AA, Bawa DB (2012) Analysis of awareness and adaptation to climate change among farmers in the Sahel savannah agro-ecological zone of Borno State, Nigeria. Br J Environ Clim Chang 2(2):216–226

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • IPCC (2001)Climate Change 2001: Adaptation to Climate Change in the Context of Sustainable Development and Equity, Contribution of working group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Burton I, Challenger B, Huq S, Klein RKT, Yohe J (ed). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

  • Jariko GA, Junejo MA, Rahpoto MS, Shah MZ (2011) Socioeconomic factors affecting adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh. Pak J Commer Soc Sci 5(1):192–201

    Google Scholar 

  • Jhajharia D, Singh VP (2011) Trends in temperature, diurnal temperature range and sunshine duration in north East India. Int J Climatol 31:1353–1367

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Joshi PK, Aggarwal PK, Tyagi NK, Pandey D (2015) Role of development policies in combating climate change issues in Indian Agriculture: A first order irrigation and fertilizer policies. 29th International Conference of Agricultural Economist, (pp. 1–31). August 8–14, 2015. Milan, Italy

  • Kumar A, Sharma P (2013). Impact of climate variation on agricultural productivity and food security in rural India. Economics 1-38

  • Kumar SN, Aggarwal PK, Rani S, Jain S, Saxena R, Chauhan N (2011) Impact of climate change on crop productivity in Western Ghat, coastal and north eastern region in India. Curr Sci 101(3):332–341

    Google Scholar 

  • Kusters K, Wangdi N (2013) The costs of adaptation: changes in water availability and farmers’ responses in Punakha district, Bhutan. Int J Glob Warm 5(4):387–399

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lal M (2005) Implications of climate change on agricultural productivity and food security in South Asia. In Key vulnerable regions and climate change - Identifying thresholds for impacts and adaptation in relation to Article 2 of the UNFCCC. European Climate Forum

  • Lambrou Y, Nelson S (2010) Farmers in a changing climate: does gender matter? Food security in Andhra Pradesh, India. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome

    Google Scholar 

  • Latha AKV, Gopinath M, Bhat ARS (2012) Impact of climate change on rainfed agriculture in India: a case study of Dharwad. Int J Environ Sci Dev 3(4):368–371

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewandrowski JK, Brazee RJ (1993) Farm programs and climate change. Clim Chang 23:l–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lobell DB, Burke MB, Tebaldi C, Mastrandrea MD, Falcon WP, Naylor RL (2008) Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030. Science 319:607–610

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Maddala GS (1983) Limited-dependent and qualitative variables in economics. Cambridge University Press, New York

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Maddison D (2006) The perception and adaptation to climate change in Africa. CEEPA Discussion paper No. 10, Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, University of Pretoria

  • Maddison D (2007) The perception of and adaptation to climate change in Africa. Policy research working paper 4308. The World Bank development research group sustainable rural and urban development team, August 2007

  • Maiga EWH (2002) Determinants of adoption of soil and water conservation techniques in Burkina Faso. Dissertation, Oklahama State University

  • Mesike CS, Ugwa IK, Esekhade TU (2015) Adaptation to climate change among rubber farmers in delta state, Nigeria. Clim chang 1(2): 98–104

  • Nhemachena C, Hassan R (2007) Micro-level analysis of farmers’ adaptation to climate change in Southern Africa. IFPRI discussion paper 00714, August 2007, International Food Policy Research Institute, Rome

  • Pandey S, Bhandari H, Ding S, Prapertchob P, Sharan R, Nail D, Taunk SK, Sastri S (2006) Coping with drought in rice farming in Asia: Insights from a cross country comparative study. Invited paper prepared for presentation at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, August 12-18, 2006. Gold Coast, Australia.

  • Pandey S, Bhandari H (2009) Drought, coping mechanisms and poverty: Insights from rainfed rice farming in Asia. Occasional papers: Knowledge for Development Effectiveness. IFAD. International Fund for Agricultural Development, January, 2009

  • Paudel K, Pandit M, Mishra A, Segarra E (2011) Why don’t farmers adopt precision farming technologies in cotton production? In: Agricultural & Applied Economics Association’s 2011 AAEA & NAREA Joint Annual Meeting. Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

  • Ravindranath NH, Rao S, Sharma N, Nair M, Gopalakrishnan R, Rao AR, Malaviya TR, Sagadevan A, Munsi M, Krishna N, Bala G (2011) Climate change vulnerability profiles for North East India. Curr Sci 101(3):384–394

    Google Scholar 

  • Shankar RK, Nagasree K, Sankar MGR, Prasad MS, Raju BMK, Rao SAVM, Venkateshwarlu B (2013) Farmer perception and adaptation measures towards changing climate in South India and role of extension in adaptation and mitigation to changing climate. Extension Bulletin No. 3:11–5. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad

  • Singh I, Grover J (2013) Role of extension agencies in climate change related adaptation strategies. Int J Farm Sci 3(1):144–155

    Google Scholar 

  • Smit B, Burton I, Klein RJT, Street R (1999) The science of adaptation: a framework for assessment. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 4:199–213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stakhiv EZ (1996) Managing water resources for climate change adaptation. In: Smith JB et al (eds) Adapting to climate change: an international perspective. Springer, New York, pp 243–264

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Swai OW, Mbwambo JS, Magayane FT (2012) Perceived effects of climate change on agricultural production: a gendered analysis done in Bahi and Kondoa Districts, Dodoma region, Tanzania. Res Humanit Soc Sci 2(9):59–68

    Google Scholar 

  • Tessema YA, Chanyalew SA, Endris GS (2013) Understanding the process of adaptation to climate change by small-holder farmers: the case of east Hararghe zone, Ethiopia. Agric Food Econ 1:13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tiwari KR, Rayamajhi S, Pokharel RK, Balla MK (2014) Determinants of the climate change adaptation in rural farming in Nepal Himalaya. Int J Multidispl Curr Res 2:234–240

    Google Scholar 

  • Tobin J (1958) Estimation of relationships for limited dependent variables. Econometrica 26(1):24–36.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Uaiene RNCA, Masters WA (2009) Determinants of Agricultural Technology Adoption in Mozambique Ministry of Planning and Development, Republic of Mozambique

  • Varadan RJ, Kumar P (2014) Indigenous knowledge about climate change: validating the perceptions of dryland farmers in Tamil Nadu. Indian J Tradit Knowl 13(2):390–397

    Google Scholar 

  • Venkateswarlu B, Kumar S, Dixit S, Rao SC, Kokate KD, Singh AK (2012) Demonstration of climate resilient technologies on farmers’ fields action plan for 100 vulnerable districts. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, p 163

    Google Scholar 

  • Wooldridge JM (2002) Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. MIT Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • World Bank (2007) World development report 2008: agriculture for development. Quebecor World.

Download references


This work was supported by the University Grant Commission (UGC) under the Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship grant number F1-17.1/2014-15/RGNF-2014-15-ST-MEG-77655 / (SA-III/Website) Dtd-25-Feb-2015.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dayohimi Rymbai.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

The paper is the part of the Ph.D. work of the first author.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rymbai, D., Sheikh, F.M. The insight of agricultural adaptation to climate change: a case of rice growers in Eastern Himalaya, India. Int J Biometeorol 62, 1833–1845 (2018).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: