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International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 62, Issue 9, pp 1721–1732 | Cite as

Behaviour of Quercus pollen in the air, determination of its sources and transport through the atmosphere of Mexico City and conurbated areas

  • M. C. Calderón-Ezquerro
  • B. Martinez-Lopez
  • C. Guerrero-Guerra
  • E. D. López-Espinosa
  • W. D. Cabos-Narvaez
Original Paper

Abstract

Pollen allergies have a remarkable clinical impact all over world. Quercus pollen is the main allergen in many parts of world. Due to the health impacts caused by exposure to oak pollen, the objectives of this study are to characterise the aerobiological behaviour of Quercus pollen and to determine its potential sources as well as their transport through the atmosphere of Mexico City and surrounding areas between January 2012 and June 2015. Airborne Quercus pollen monitoring was carried out simultaneously in five zones of Mexico City. The percentage of Quercus pollen of the total pollen collected from the air showed that the highest concentration was recorded in 2014, followed by 2012. The annual seasonal variation indicated that flowering and pollen emission into the atmosphere began between February and March. The maximum concentration of Quercus pollen was reached at Cuajimalpa. In 2012, the amount of pollen grains was distributed in March and April uniformly, whilst in 2014, the largest amount of pollen was concentrated in March. In 2012 and 2014 (years with the highest pollen concentrations), corresponding intraday variations were quite similar, with a low relative maximum in the morning and the highest concentrations in the evening. The largest values were recorded in 2014, and two processes can explain these. In the afternoon, pollen from secondary forest is carried by southwesterly converging winds, increasing the pollen concentration in Cuajimalpa. In the evening, there is an additional pollen contribution from primary forest via transport by NW winds.

Keywords

Aerobiology Quercus-pollen Wind convergence Transport Daily cycle 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Ivonn Santiago López, Marisol Olivé Arrioja, Téllez Unzueta Fernando, Tania Robledo Retana, Miguel Angel Meneses, Hilda Adriana Guerrero Parra, Nancy Serrano Silva, Wilfrido Gutiérrez López and Manuel Garcia Espinosa from the Centre of Atmospheric Sciences of UNAM for their technical assistance.

Funding

This work was funded by the Secretaría de Ciencia y Tecnología e Innovación de la Ciudad de México (SECITI/PICS012–100/2012 and by SECITI/050/2016); by Instituto Nacional de Ecología y Cambio Climático (INECC/A1–004/2014); by CONACYT-SEMARNAT (2015–1-262680); and Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica (IN201109–3, IA100912), UNAM.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

484_2018_1572_MOESM1_ESM.docx (16 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 16 kb)
484_2018_1572_MOESM2_ESM.tiff (1.2 mb)
ESM 2 Figure supplementary material: shows the percentage of Quercus pollen of the annual total pollen of each station and the city as a whole by sampling year. (TIFF 1244 kb)

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Copyright information

© ISB 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. C. Calderón-Ezquerro
    • 1
  • B. Martinez-Lopez
    • 1
  • C. Guerrero-Guerra
    • 1
  • E. D. López-Espinosa
    • 1
  • W. D. Cabos-Narvaez
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Av. Universidad N 3000Universidad Nacional Autónoma De MéxicoCoyoacánMexico
  2. 2.Universidad de AlcaláMadridSpain

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