Risk perception of heat waves and its spatial variation in Nanjing, China
- 107 Downloads
The intensity, frequency, and duration of heat waves are expected to increase with climate change. In this study, we found a significant difference of public perceived effects of heat waves and trust in government among urban, suburban, and rural districts. Rural residents had a significant higher effect perception than urbanites and also showed stronger willingness to have medical insurance or regular physical examinations. Meanwhile, suburban residents had the lowest trust perception in government among these three districts, which may be due to suburban districts’ unique social structure and complex social issues. Besides, we assessed the relationship between the factor effect and demographic variables. The results showed that urban respondents’ effect perception was significantly related to heat wave experiences. Suburban respondents’ effect perception was significantly related to age, income, and heat wave experiences. And rural respondents’ effect perception was significantly related to income and chronic diseases. Based on our results, much more attention needs to be paid to rural districts. The government should strengthen infrastructure construction such as cooling centers, improve emergency response plans and mechanisms, and increase reserves of emergency supplies in rural districts. Also, targeted risk communication is of the equal importance to aid the policy-makers improving the relationship with the public and regaining the public’s trust and support.
KeywordsHeat waves Risk perception Spatial variation Psychometric paradigm
We thank Weiliang Bao, Xuwen Chen, Lilin Lin, and Haiyun Wu for questionnaire distribution and fruitful discussions. And we thank for the support of the Chinese Natural Science Foundation 41571475 (http://www.nsfc.gov.cn/, received by LH) and the Special Funding for Environmental Public Welfare Projects 201509053 (http://www.zhb.gov.cn/, received by LH).The work of Y. Liu waspartially supported by the Office of Global Strategy and Initiatives andthe Claus M. Halle Institute for Global Learning at Emory led by Dr.Philip Wainwright through the Emory-NJU Global Partnership Initiative.
This study was funded by the Chinese Natural Science Foundation 41571475. (http://www.nsfc.gov.cn/, received by LH) and the Special Funding for Environmental Public Welfare Projects 201509053 (http://www.zhb.gov.cn/, received by LH). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. This study was also supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.
Compliance with ethical standards
Research involving human participants
The study complies with the current laws of the country. The result of ethical review given by the Ethics Committee of Nanjing University is “approval,” and this process conforms to the requirements of the ethical review.
In order to avoid divulging any private information, informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Akompab DA, Bi P, Williams S, Grant J, Walker IA, Augoustinos M (2013) Heat waves and climate change: applying the health belief model to identify predictors of risk perception and adaptive behaviours in Adelaide, Australia. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10(6):2164–2184. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10062164 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bai L, Cirendunzhu, Pengcuociren, Dawa, Woodward A, Liu X, Baimaciwang, Dazhen, Sang S, Wan F, Zhou L, Xu J, Li X, Wu H, Yu B, Xiraoruodeng, Liu Q (2013) Rapid warming in Tibet, China: public perception, response and coping resources in urban Lhasa. Environ Health 12(1):71. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-12-71 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- China (2003) Notice of the general office of the state council on the opinions of the establishment of a new rural cooperative medical system. http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2005-08/12/content_21850.htm. Accessed 1 November 2017
- Du Z, Mo Y, Li T (2014) Heat wave-related excess mortality assessment in Shanghai, in summer 2013. J Environ Health 31:757–760Google Scholar
- Ganguly AR, Steinhaeuser K, Erickson DJ, Branstetter M, Parish ES, Singh N, Drake JB, Buja L (2009) Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(37):15555–15559. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0904495106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heckenhahn M MK (2011) Kommunale Strategien der primären Prävention hitzebedingter Gesundheitsschäden Präv Gesundheitsf 6(3):7–191 doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11553-010-0283-9
- IPCC (2013) Summary for policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)] Cambridge University press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
- Kovats RS, Hajat S (2008) Heat stress and public health: a critical review. Annu Rev Public Health 29(1):41–55. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090843 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kunreuther H, Easterling D, Desvousges W, Slovic P (1990) Public attitudes toward siting a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada. Risk Anal 10(4):469–484. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.1990.tb00533.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu JJ, Zheng YF, Wu RJ (2008) Impacts of heat waves disaster on human health and its research method. J Nat Disasters 17:151–156Google Scholar
- Liu T, Xu YJ, Zhang YH, Yan QH, Song XL, Xie HY, Luo Y, Rutherford S, Chu C, Lin HL, Ma WJ (2013) Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China. BMC Public Health 13(1):913–926. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-913 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Michelozzi P, de’ Donato FK, Bargagli AM, D’Ippoliti D, de Sario M, Marino C, Schifano P, Cappai G, Leone M, Kirchmayer U, Ventura M, di Gennaro M, Leonardi M, Oleari F, de Martino A, Perucci CA (2010) Surveillance of summer mortality and preparedness to reduce the health impact of heat waves in Italy. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7(5):2256–2273. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052256 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nogueria P, Paixao E, Falcao JM (2005) Comportamentos das familias portuguesas em epocas de calor e durante a onda de calor de Agosto de 2003 [in Portuguese]. Vigilancia Epidemiologica 23:3–18Google Scholar
- Sampson NR, Gronlund CJ, Buxton MA, Catalano L, White-Newsome JL, Conlon KC, O’Neill MS, McCormick S, Parker EA (2013) Staying cool in a changing climate: reaching vulnerable populations during heat events. Glob Environ Chang 23(2):475–484. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.12.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- USCDC (2006) Heat-related deaths-United States, 1999-2003 morbidity and mortality weekly report 55:796-798Google Scholar
- Xu C (2013) Nanjing statistical yearbook vol 2013. Nanjing Bureau of Statistics,Google Scholar
- Yang HL, Xu YL, Tao SC, Pan J, Liu K, Wu MS (2010) Vulnerability to heat waves and adaptation: a summary. Sci Technol Rev 28:98–102Google Scholar
- Zhen Y, Lv K (2006) The innovative research on the geography characteristic of city and countryside intersection and its management mechanism world. Reg Stud 15:54–59Google Scholar