PID temperature controller in pig nursery: spatial characterization of thermal environment
- 130 Downloads
The use of enhanced technologies of temperature control can improve the thermal conditions in environments of livestock facilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the thermal environment variables in a pig nursery with a heating system with two temperature control technologies based on the geostatistical analysis. The following systems were evaluated: overhead electrical resistance with Proportional, Integral, and Derivative (PID) controller and overhead electrical resistance with a thermostat. We evaluated the climatic variables: dry bulb temperature (Tbs), air relative humidity (RH), temperature and humidity index (THI), and enthalpy in the winter, at 7:00, 12:00, and 18:00 h. The spatial distribution of these variables was mapped by kriging. The results showed that the resistance heating system with PID controllers improved the thermal comfort conditions in the pig nursery in the coldest hours, maintaining the spatial distribution of the air temperature more homogeneous in the pen. During the hottest weather, neither system provided comfort.
KeywordsAnimal ambiance Geostatistics Spatial variability Weaned piglets
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
- Cambardella et al (1994) Field scale variability of soil properties in Central IOWA soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58(5):1501–1511. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1994.03615995005800050033x
- Campos JA et al (2008) Thermal environment and swine performance in two models of maternity and nursery. R Ceres 55:187–193Google Scholar
- Daskalov PI, Arvanitis KG, Pasgianos GD, Sigrimis NA (2006) Non-linear adaptive temperature and humidity control in animal buildings. Biosyst Eng 93(1):1–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2005.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ferreira RA (2011) Maior produção com melhor ambiente para aves, suínos e bovinos, 2nd edn. Aprenda Fácil, ViçosaGoogle Scholar
- Isaaks EH, Srivastava RM (1989) An introduction to applied geostatistics. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Kummer R et al (2009) Factors associated with nursery pig performance. Acta Scient Vet 37(Supl 1):195–209Google Scholar
- Little TM, Hills FJ (1978) Agricultural experimentation: design and analysis. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Moura DJ (1999) Ventilação na suinocultura. In: SILVA IJO (ed) Ambiência e qualidade na produção industrial de suínos. FEALQ, Piracicaba, pp 49–179Google Scholar
- Ogata K (2011) Engenharia de controle moderno, 5th edn. PEARSON, São PauloGoogle Scholar
- Sales FAL, Barbosa Filho JAD, Aquino TMF, Brito IF, Carvalho LE (2011) Environmental monitoring of the horizontal profile of housing system for pregnant sows, using precision livestock production. R Cient Prod Anim 13(1):7–12. https://doi.org/10.15528/2176-4158/rcpa.v13n1p7-12
- Sarubbi J, Rossi LA, Moura DJ, Oliveira RA, David E (2010) Electrical energy use in different heating systems for weaned piglets. Eng Agríc 30(6):1003–1011. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-69162010000600002
- Silva CA, Brito BG, Mores N, Amaral AL (1998) The relation of the risk factors on the suckling piglets performance in farms of north Paraná state. Cienc Rural 28(4):677–681. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84781998000400023
- Silva IM, Pandorfi H, Almeida GLP, Guiselini C, Caldas AM, Jacob LA (2012) Spatial analysis of thermal conditions of the pre-milking dairy cattle under climatization regimes. R Bras Eng Agríc Ambient 16(8):903–909. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-43662012000800013
- Vieira SR (2000) Geoestatística em estudos de variabilidade espacial do solo. In: Novais RF, Alvares VH, Schaefer CEGR (eds) Tópicos em ciência do solo. Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo,Viçosa, pp 1–53Google Scholar
- Warrick AW, Nielsen DR (1980) Spatial variability of soil physical properties in the field. In: Hillel D (ed) Applications of soil physics. Academic Press, New York, pp 319–344. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-348580-9.50018-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar