International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 62, Issue 4, pp 553–564 | Cite as

Thermal conditions within tree cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests: potential implications for cavity users

  • Kerri T. Vierling
  • Teresa J. Lorenz
  • Patrick Cunningham
  • Kelsi Potterf
Original Paper

Abstract

Tree cavities provide critical roosting and breeding sites for multiple species, and thermal environments in these cavities are important to understand. Our objectives were to (1) describe thermal characteristics in cavities between June 3 and August 9, 2014, and (2) investigate the environmental factors that influence cavity temperatures. We placed iButtons in 84 different cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in central Washington, and took hourly measurements for at least 8 days in each cavity. Temperatures above 40 °C are generally lethal to developing avian embryos, and ~ 18% of the cavities had internal temperatures of ≥ 40 °C for at least 1 h of each day. We modeled daily maximum cavity temperature, the amplitude of daily cavity temperatures, and the difference between the mean internal cavity and mean ambient temperatures as a function of several environmental variables. These variables included canopy cover, tree diameter at cavity height, cavity volume, entrance area, the hardness of the cavity body, the hardness of the cavity sill (which is the wood below the cavity entrance which forms the barrier between the cavity and the external environment), and sill width. Ambient temperature had the largest effect size for maximum cavity temperature and amplitude. Larger trees with harder sills may provide more thermally stable cavity environments, and decayed sills were positively associated with maximum cavity temperatures. Summer temperatures are projected to increase in this region, and additional research is needed to determine how the thermal environments of cavities will influence species occupancy, breeding, and survival.

Keywords

Tree cavity Microclimate Ponderosa pine Bats White-headed woodpecker Black-backed woodpecker Lewis’s woodpecker 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers whose comments and suggestions helped to greatly improve this paper. Additionally, we would like to thank the Michael Gratson Fellowship for Undergraduate Research (awarded to KP). We also would like to thank Joan St. Hilaire from the US Forest Service and Ross Huffman from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife for logistical support.

Supplementary material

484_2017_1464_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (71 kb)
ESM 1 (JPEG 70 kb)
484_2017_1464_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (76 kb)
ESM 2 (JPEG 75 kb)
484_2017_1464_MOESM3_ESM.jpg (114 kb)
ESM 3 (JPEG 114 kb)
484_2017_1464_MOESM4_ESM.jpg (91 kb)
ESM 4 (JPEG 90 kb)

References

  1. Abatzoglou JT, Rupp DE, Mote PW (2014) Seasonal climate variability and change in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Am Meteorol Soc 27:2125–2142Google Scholar
  2. Aitken KEH, Wiebe KL, Martin K (2002) Nest-site reuse patterns for a cavity-nesting bird community in interior British Columbia. Auk 119:391–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blanc LA, Walters JR (2008) Cavity excavation and enlargement as mechanisms for indirect interactions in an avian community. Ecology 89:506–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bunnell FL (2013) Sustaining cavity-using species: patterns of cavity use and implications to forest management. ISRN Forestry 457698.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/457698
  5. Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2002) Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Burt WH, Grossenheider RP (1980) A field guide to the mammals: North America north of Mexico, 3rd edn. Houghton Mifflin Company, BostonGoogle Scholar
  7. Clement MJ, Castleberry SB (2013a) Summer tree roost selection by Rafinesque’s big-eared bat. J Wildl Manag 77:414–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clement MJ, Castleberry SB (2013b) Tree structure and cavity microclimate: implications for bats and birds. Int J Biometeorol 57:437–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada [COSEWIC] (2010) COSEWIC assessment and status report on the white-headed woodpecker Picoides albolarvatus in Canada. COSEWIC, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  10. Conway CJ, Martin T (2000) Effects of ambient temperature on avian incubation behavior. Behav Ecol 11:178–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coombs AB, Bowman J, Garroway CJ (2010) Thermal properties of tree cavities during winter in a northern hardwood forest. J Wildl Management 74:1875–1881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Covert-Bratland KA, Theimer TC, Block WM (2007) Hairy woodpecker winter roost characteristics in burned ponderosa pine. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dormann CF, Elith J, Bacher S, Buchmann C, Carl G, Carré G, Marquéz JRG, Gruber B, Lafourcade B, Leitão PJ, Münkemüller T, McClean C, Osborne PE, Reineking B, Schröder B, Skidmore AK, Zurell D, Lautenbach S (2013) Collinearity: a review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography 36:27–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Durant SE, Hopkins WA, Hepp GR, Walters JR (2013) Ecological, evolutionary, and conservation implications of incubation temperature-dependent phenotypes in birds. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 88:499–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Garrett, K.L., M.G. Raphael and R.D. Dixon. 1996. White-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus), the birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/whhwoo,  https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.252
  16. Grüebler MU, Widmer S, Korner-Nievergelt F, Naef-Daenzzer B (2014) Temperature characteristics of winter roost-sites for birds and mammals: tree cavities and anthropogenic alternatives. Int J Biometeorol 58:629–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guinan, J.A., P.A. Gowaty, and E.K. Eltzroth. 2008 .Western bluebird (Sialia mexicana), the birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/wesblu.  https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.510
  18. Haftorn S, Reinertsen RE (1985) The effect of temperature and clutch size on the energetic cost of incubation in a free-living blue tit (Parus caeruleus). Auk 102:470–478Google Scholar
  19. Hubbart J, Link T, Campbell C, Cobos D (2005) Evaluation of a low-cost temperature measurement system for environmental applications. Hydrol Process 19:1517–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jackson, J.A., H.R. Ouellet, and B.J. Jackson. 2002. Hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus), the birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/haiwoo.  https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.702
  21. Johnson, L.S. 2014. House wren (Troglodytes aedon), the birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/houwre,  https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.380
  22. Johnson JB, Omland KS (2004) Model selection in ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol Evol 19:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jonckheere I, Fleck S, Nackaerts K, Muys B, Coppin P, Weiss M, Baret F (2004) Review of methods for in situ leaf area index determination: part I. Theories, sensors and hemispherical photography. Agric For Meteorol 121:19–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kalcounis MC, Brigham RM (1998) Secondary use of aspen cavities by tree-roosting big brown bats. J Wildl Manag 62:603–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kozma JM, Kroll AJ (2010) Nest survival of western bluebirds using tree cavities in managed ponderosa pine forests of Central Washington. Condor 112:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kozma JM, Kroll AJ (2012) Woodpecker nest survival in burned and unburned managed ponderosa pine forests of the northwestern United States. Condor 114:173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lacki MJ, Johnson JS, Baker MD (2013) Temperatures beneath bark of dead trees used as roosts by Myotis volans in forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Acta Chiropterologica 15:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lorenz TJ, Vierling KT, Johnson T, Fischer PC (2015) The role of wood hardness in limiting nest site selection in avian cavity excavators. Ecol Appl 25:1016–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mainwaring, M.C. 2015. Nest construction and incubation in a changing climate. In Nests, eggs, and incubation: new ideas about avian reproduction. Eds. D.C. Deeming and S.J. Reynolds. Oxford Scholarship Online.  https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718666.003.0006
  30. Martin K, Eadie JM (1999) Nest webs: a community-wide approach to the management and conservation of cavity-nesting forest birds. For Ecol Manag 115:243–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Martin TE, Li P (1992) Life history traits of open- vs. cavity-nesting birds. Ecology 73:579–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Martin K, Aitken KEH, Wiebe KL (2004) Nest sites and nest webs for cavity-nesting communities in interior British Columbia, Canada: characteristics and niche partitioning. Condor 106:5–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Matsuoka S (2000) A method to measure the hardness of wood in standing woodpecker nest trees. Jpn J Ornithol 49:151–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Matsuoka S (2008) Wood hardness in nest trees of the great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major. Ornithol Sci 7:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Maziarz M, Wesolowski T, Hebda G, Cholewa M, Broughton RK (2016) Breeding success of the Great Tit Parus major in relation to attributes of natural nest cavities in a primeval forest. J Ornithol 157:343–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maziarz M, Broughton RK, Wesolowski T (2017) Microclimate in tree cavities and nest-boxes: implications for hole nesting birds. For Ecol Manag 389:306–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McComb WC, Noble RE (1981) Microclimates of nest boxes and natural cavities in bottomland hardwoods. J Wildl Manag 45:284–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mellen-McLean, K., B. Wales, and B. Bresson. 2013. A conservation assessment for the white-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, and U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Portland, OR. 41 pGoogle Scholar
  39. Mote PW, Allen MR, Jones RG, Li S, Mera R, Rupp DE, Salhuddin A, Vickers D (2016) Superensemble regional climate modeling for the western United States. Bull Am Meteorol Soc.  https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00090.1
  40. Newton I (1998) Population limitation in birds. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  41. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife [ODFW]. 2016. Oregon Conservation Strategy. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Salem, OR. < http://www.oregonconservationstrategy.org/>. Accessed Nov. 25, 2016
  42. Otto MS, Becker NI, Encarnacao JA (2016) Roost characteristics as indicators for heterothermic behavior of forest-dwelling bats. Ecol Res 31:385–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Paclík M, Weidinger K (2007) Microclimate of tree cavities during winter nights-implications for roost site selection in birds. Int J Biometeorol 51:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Parsons S, Lewis KJ, Psyllakis JM (2003) Relationships between roosting habitat of bats and decay of aspen in the sub-boreal forests of British Columbia. For Ecol Manag 177:559–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Du Plessis MA, Weathers WW, Koenig WD (1994) Energetic benefits of communal roosting by acorn woodpeckers during the nonbreeding season. Condor 96:631–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Radford AN, Du Plessis MA (2003) The importance of rainfall to a cavity-nesting species. Ibis 145:692–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rhodes B, O’Donnell C, Jamieson I (2009) Microclimate of natural cavity nests and its implications for a threatneed secondary-cavity-nesting passerine of New Zealand, the South Island saddleback. Condor 111:462–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. SAS Institute Inc (2013) SAS/STAT® 13.1 User’s guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  49. Schubert GH, 1974. Silviculture of Southwestern Ponderosa Pine: the status of our knowledge. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. General Technical Report RM-123Google Scholar
  50. Sedgeley JA (2001) Quality of cavity microclimate as a factor influencing selection of maternity roosts by a tree-dwelling bat, Chalinolobus tuberculatus, in New Zealand. J Appl Ecol 38:425–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tews J, Brose U, Grimm V, Tielborger K, Wichmann MC, Schwager M, Jeltsch F (2004) Animal species diversity driven by habitat heterogeneity/diversity: the importance of keystone structures. J Biogeogr 31:79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service [USFWS] (2013) 90-day finding on a petition to list two populations of black-backed woodpecker as endangered or threatened. Fed Regist 78:21086–21097Google Scholar
  53. Vierling, K.T., V.A. Saab and B.W. Tobalske. 2013. Lewis's woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), the birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/lewwoo,  https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.284
  54. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife [WDFW] (2013) Threatened and endangered wildlife in Washington: 2012 Annual Report. Listing and recovery section, wildlife program. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA, 251 ppGoogle Scholar
  55. Weathers WW, Hodum PJ, Blakesley JA (2001) Thermal ecology and ecological energetics of California spotted owls. Condor 103:678–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Webb DR (1987) Thermal tolerance of avian embryos: a review. Condor 89:874–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wesolowski T (2002) Anti-predator adaptations in nesting Marsh Tits Parus palustris: the role of nest-site security. Ibis 144:593–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wesolowski T, Czeszczewik D, Rowiński P, Walankiewicz W (2002) Nest soaking in natural holes—a serious cause of breeding failure? Ornis Fennica 79:132–138Google Scholar
  59. Wiebe KL (2001) Microclimate of tree cavity nests: is it important for reproductive success in northern flickers? Auk 118:412–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wiebe, K.L. and W.S. Moore. 2017. Northern flicker (Colaptes auratus), the birds of North America (P.G. Rodewald, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; retrieved from the Birds of North America: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/norfli

Copyright information

© ISB 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fish and Wildlife SciencesUniversity of IdahoMoscowUSA
  2. 2.Pacific Northwest Research StationOlympiaUSA
  3. 3.Pacific Northwest Research StationUS Forest ServiceCorvallisUSA
  4. 4.Center for Natural Lands ManagementOlympiaUSA

Personalised recommendations