The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents (Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant (Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961–1980, 1962–1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.
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This paper is a contribution from the two projects of the Operational Programme of Education for Competitiveness of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic: contract no. CZ.1.07/2.4.00/31.0056, contract no. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248. In addition, we gratefully acknowledge the support of KONTAKT LH2110011.
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Bartošová, L., Trnka, M., Bauer, Z. et al. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe. Int J Biometeorol 58, 809–817 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-013-0661-z
- Long-distance migrant
- Central Europe