We examined the association between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and daily mean ambient temperature on the day of the test in healthy men who had three annual checkups. We investigated 9,694 men who visited a hospital for routine health checkups in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Although the means and medians of ambient temperature for the three years were similar, the mode in 2008 (15.8 °C) was very different from those in 2007 and 2009 (22.4 °C and 23.2 °C). After controlling for age, body mass index, and hematocrit, a multiple regression analysis revealed a U-shaped relationship between ambient temperature and PSA in 2007 and 2009 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively), but not in 2008 (P = 0.779). In 2007, PSA was 13.5 % higher at 5 °C and 10.0 % higher at 30 °C than that at 18.4 °C (nadir). In 2009, PSA was 7.3 % higher at 5 °C and 6.8 % at 30 °C compared with the level at 17.7 °C (nadir). In logistic regression analysis, a U-shaped relationship was found for the prevalence of a higher PSA (> 2.5 ng/mL) by ambient temperature, with the lowest likelihood of having a high PSA at 17.8 °C in 2007 (P = 0.038) and 15.5 °C in 2009 (P = 0.033). When tested at 30 °C, there was a 57 % excess risk of having a high PSA in 2007 and a 61 % higher risk in 2009 compared with those at each nadir temperature. We found a U-shaped relationship between PSA and ambient temperature with the lowest level of PSA at 15–20 °C.
Prostate-specific antigen Climate Temperature Mass screening
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Catalona WJ, Smith DS, Ornstein DK (1997) Prostate cancer detection in men with serum PSA concentrations of 2.6 to 4.0 ng/mL and benign prostate examination. Enhancement of specificity with free PSA measurements. JAMA 277:1452–1455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connolly D, van Leeuwen PJ, Bailie J, Black A, Murray LJ, Keane PF, Gavin A (2011) Daily, monthly and seasonal variation in PSA levels and the association with weather parameters. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 14:58–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Down L, Metcalfe C, Martin RM, Neal DE, Hamdy FC, Donovan JL, Lane JA (2011) Seasonal variation in prostate-specific antigen levels: a large cross-sectional study of men in the UK. BJU Int 108:1409–1414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eastham JA, Riedel E, Scardino PT, Shike M, Fleisher M, Schatzkin A, Lanza E, Latkany L, Begg CB, Polyp Prevention Trial Study Group (2003) Variation of serum prostate-specific antigen levels: an evaluation of year-to-year fluctuations. JAMA 289:2695–2700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ito K, Yamamoto T, Miyakubo M, Takechi H, Ohi M, Suzuki K (2008) Seasonally changes in the serum PSA levels in men participated in the population-based screening for prostate cancer in Japan. Eur Urol Suppl 7:140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luján Galán M, Pascual Mateo C, Rodríguez García N, García Mediero JM, Pascual Durán T, Paez Borda A, Berenguer Sánchez A (2006) Impact of the weather on the serum levels of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) (in Spanish). Arch Esp Urol 59:247–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naselli A, Fontana V, Introini C, Andreatta R, Puppo P (2011) Effect of age, family history of prostate cancer, prostate enlargement and seasonality on PSA levels in a contemporary cohort of healthy Italian subjects. Int J Biol Markers 26:102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohwaki K, Endo F, Muraishi O, Hiramatsu S, Yano E (2010a) Relationship between prostate-specific antigen and hematocrit: does hemodilution lead to lower PSA concentrations in men with a higher body mass index? Urology 75:648–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohwaki K, Endo F, Muraishi O, Yano E (2010b) Plasma volume changes affect prostate specific antigen in healthy men. J Urol 183:1349–1354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Punglia RS, D’Amico AV, Catalona WJ, Roehl KA, Kuntz KM (2003) Effect of verification bias on screening for prostate cancer by measurement of prostate-specific antigen. N Engl J Med 349:335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salama G, Noirot O, Bataille V, Malavaud S, Rebillard X, Villers A, Malavaud B, French arm of the ERSPC study (2007) Seasonality of serum prostate-specific antigen levels: a population-based study. Eur Urol 52:708–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simşek U, Kutlu S, Yavaşçaouğlu I, Oktay B, Ozyurt M (1992) Seasonal variation of prostatic acid phosphate and prostate-specific antigen in patients without prostatic malignancy. Eur Urol 21(Suppl 1):111–114Google Scholar
Wassertheil-Smoller S (2004) Biostatics and epidemiology, 3rd edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar