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, Volume 32, Issue 6, pp 1681–1694 | Cite as

Brassinosteroids mitigate iron deficiency improving nutritional status and photochemical efficiency in Eucalyptus urophylla plants

  • Michael Douglas Roque Lima
  • Udson de Oliveira Barros Junior
  • Bruno Lemos Batista
  • Allan Klynger da Silva LobatoEmail author
Original Article
  • 164 Downloads

Abstract

Iron (Fe) is essential for the biosynthesis of constitutive proteins of chloroplasts, mitochondria and other organelles, and its deficiency triggers negative effects on photochemical efficiency and electron transport. Brassinosteroids are steroids that play beneficial roles related to chlorophyll fluorescence and plant nutrition. The aims of this research were to answer if epibrassinolide (EBR) can mitigate Fe deficiency in Eucalyptus urophylla plants and to evaluate the repercussions on nutritional status and physiological and biochemical behaviours. The experiment followed a completely randomized factorial design with two Fe conditions (Fe deficiency and control) and three levels of 24-epibrassinolide (0, 50 and 100 nM EBR). EBR application in E. urophylla plants exposed to Fe deficiency increased Fe contents in root, stem and leaf. EBR reduced the negative effects of Fe deficiency on chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange parameters. Fe deficiency caused reductions in Chl a, Chl b and total Chl, while plants sprayed with 100 nM EBR showed significant increases in these variables. Our results clearly reveal that EBR attenuated the negative effects caused by Fe deficiency on nutritional status and in the physiological and biochemical behaviours of E. urophylla plants, and these results were connected to increases in the contents of macronutrients and micronutrients, including Fe. EBR also improved the photochemical efficiency of PSII, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigments, inducing minor accumulations of oxidative compounds. Additionally, E. urophylla plants submitted to 100 nM of EBR had better nutritional, biochemical, physiological and morphological results.

Keywords

24-Epibrassinolide Chloroplast Fe supply Micronutrient Photosystem II 

Abbreviations

ΦPSII

Effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry

BRs

Brassinosteroids

CAR

Carotenoids

Chl a

Chlorophyll a

Chl b

Chlorophyll b

Ci

Intercellular CO2 concentration

CO2

Carbon dioxide

Cyt-b6/f

Cytochrome b6/f complex

E

Transpiration rate

EBR

Epibrassinosteroids

EL

Electrolyte leakage

ETR

Electron transport rate

ETR/PN

Ratio between the apparent electron transport rate and net photosynthetic rate

EXC

Relative energy excess at the PSII level

Fd

Ferredoxin

Fe

Iron

Fm

Maximal fluorescence yield of the dark-adapted state

F0

Minimal fluorescence yield of the dark-adapted state

Fv

Variable fluorescence

Fv/Fm

Maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry

gs

Stomatal conductance

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

LDM

Leaf dry matter

MDA

Malondialdehyde

NPQ

Nonphotochemical quenching

O2

Superoxide

PN

Net photosynthetic rate

PN/Ci

Instantaneous carboxylation efficiency

PSII

Photosystem II

qP

Photochemical quenching

RDM

Root dry matter

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RuBisCo

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

SDM

Stem dry matter

TDM

Total dry matter

Total Chl

Total chlorophyll

WUE

Water-use efficiency

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research had financial support from Fundação Amazônia de Amparo a Estudos e Pesquisas (FAPESPA/Brazil), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq/Brazil) and Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA/Brazil) to AKSL. MDRL and UOBJ were supported by scholarships from Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA/Brazil).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Douglas Roque Lima
    • 1
  • Udson de Oliveira Barros Junior
    • 1
  • Bruno Lemos Batista
    • 2
  • Allan Klynger da Silva Lobato
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Núcleo de Pesquisa Vegetal Básica e AplicadaUniversidade Federal Rural da AmazôniaParagominasBrazil
  2. 2.Centro de Ciências Naturais e HumanasUniversidade Federal do ABCSão PauloBrazil

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