Change in biochemical parameters of Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) seedlings inoculated by pathogens of charcoal disease under water deficit conditions
- 147 Downloads
Drought alone or in combination with charcoal disease pathogens led to modifications in some biochemical characteristics of Persian oak seedlings. Drought conditions enhances the effects of charcoal fungus with effects at biochemical level.
Charcoal disease is one of the common diseases in oak forest of Zagros in western Iran that has increased in the recent years. The disease is associated with abiotic stress, especially drought, and contributes to the decline of Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.), the major oak species in this forest association. Persian oak seedlings were exposed to a factorial combination of two irrigation levels and inoculation with either Biscogniauxia mediterranea or Obolarina persica (agents of charcoal disease). Proline, total soluble sugar and soluble protein contents in seedling foliage were increased in response to charcoal pathogen inoculation, especially when combined with water stress, while starch, chlorophyll a + b and carotenoid contents strongly declined. Pathogen inoculation stimulated malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage, and hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical contents in oak leaves, and were increased by water stress. The combination of charcoal disease agents and water stress increased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity while, for catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities, the interaction between the two factors of variability was not significantly increased. Ascorbate peroxidase activity was at maximum level in seedlings infected with O. persica independently of water stress. Glutathione reductase had the highest activity in inoculated seedlings under soil moisture stress while those under higher soil moisture levels, the enzyme was increased only when inoculated with O. persica. Contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants including ascorbic acid and glutathione increased in response to combined pathogen inoculation and water stress and was higher when seedlings were inoculated with O. persica than with B. mediterranea. Chitinase activity significantly increased because of pathogen inoculation. Furthermore, foliar phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was higher under all treatment combinations, as compared to the controls. The effects of B. mediterranea or O. persica pathogens on foliar biochemical responses of Q. brantii seedlings were more severe under water-stress and it was more sensitive to B. mediterranea than O. persica.
KeywordsAntioxidants Charcoal disease Chitinase Phenolic compounds Proline ROS
We do acknowledge the helps in the greenhouse by Dr. Saham Mirzaei Tork. We gratefully acknowledge the technical assistance of Dr. Mehrdad Zarafshar and Dr. Mohammad Khezry for all their support in the laboratory.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Ahmadi R, Kiadaliri H, Mataji A, Kafaki S (2014) Oak forest decline zonation using AHP model and GIS technique in Zagros Forests of Ilam Province. J Biodivers Environ Sci 4:141–150Google Scholar
- Ashkavand P, Tabari M, Zarafshar M, Tomášková I, Struve S (2015) Effect of SiO2 nanoparticles on drought resistance in hawthorn seedlings. For Res Pap 76:350–359Google Scholar
- Bergmeyer HU (1970) Methoden der enzymatischen analyse, 3rd edn. Verlag Chemie, Berlin, p. 226Google Scholar
- Chen YE, Cui JM, Su YQ, Yuan S, Yuan M, Zhang HY (2015) Influence of stripe rust infection on the photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars at the adult plant stage. Front Plant Sci 6:1–11Google Scholar
- Collado J, Platas G, Pelaez F (2001) Identification of an endophytic Nodulisporium sp. from Quercus ilex in Central Spain as the anamorph of Biscogniauxia mediterranea by rDNA Sequence analysis and effect of different ecological factors on distribution of the fungus. Mycologia 93:875–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Khumalo KN, Tinyane P, Soundy P, Romanazzi G, Glowacz M, Sivakumar D (2017) Effect of thyme oil vapour exposure on the brown rot infection, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, phenolic content and antioxidant activity in red and yellow skin peach cultivars. Sci Hortic 214:195–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mary S, Subramanian R (2014) Biochemical and enzymatic response of Cajanus cajan plant towards the biotic stress induced by Fusarium oxysporum udum. Afr J Basic Appl Sci 6:65–75Google Scholar
- Mirabolfathy M, Groenewald J, Crous P (2013a) The occurrence of charcoal disease caused by Biscogniauxia mediterranea on chestnut-leaved oak (Quercus castaneifolia) in the Golestan Forests of Iran. Plant Dis 100:2184–2193Google Scholar
- Nakano Y, Asada K (1981) Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Cell Physiol 22:867–880Google Scholar
- Noctor G, Veljovic-Jovanovic S, Foyer CH (2000) Peroxide processing in photosynthesis: antioxidant coupling and redox signalling. Proc R Soc Lond 355:1465–1475Google Scholar
- NooriM, TalebiM, AhmadiT (2015) Comparative studies of leaf, gall and bark flavonoids in collected Quercus brantii Lindl. (Fagaceae) from Lorestan Province, Iran. Int J Plant Res 5:42–49Google Scholar
- Sagheb-Talebi K, Sajedi T, Pourhashemi M (2013) Forests of Iran: A Treasure from the past, a hope for the future. Springer Sci Business Media 10:152Google Scholar
- Singleton V, Rossi JA (1965) Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic 16:144–158Google Scholar
- Vannini A, Mazzaglia A, Anselmi N (1999) Use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for detection of genetic variation and proof of the heterothallic mating system in Hypoxylon mediterraneum. Eur J Plant Pathol 29:209–218Google Scholar
- Vasques A, Pinto G, Dias M, Correia C, Moutinho-Pereira J, Vallejo V, Santos C, Keizer J (2016) Physiological response to drought in seedlings of Pistacia lentiscus (mastic tree). N For 47:119–130Google Scholar
- Zarafshar M, Akbarinia M, Askari H, Hosseini SM, Rahaie M, Struve D, Striker GG (2014) Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses to soil water deficit in seedlings of three populations of wild pear (Pyrus boisseriana). Biotechnol Agron Soc Environ 18:353–366Google Scholar