Kidney disease in children with heart or liver transplant

Abstract

Over the past few decades, there has been increasing recognition of kidney disease in children with non-kidney solid organ transplantation. The risk of kidney disease in children undergoing heart or liver transplantation is higher than the general population as the underlying disease and its associated management may directly impair kidney function. Both heart and liver failures contribute to hypoperfusion and kidney ischemia before patients reach the point of transplant. The transplant surgery itself can often be complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI), which may be further exacerbated by a complicated postoperative course. In the short- and long-term post-transplant period, these children are at risk of acute illness, exposed to nephrotoxic medications, and susceptible to rare but severe infections and immunologic insults that may contribute to AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In some, CKD can progress to kidney failure with replacement therapy (KFRT). CKD and KFRT are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Therefore, it is critical to monitor for and recognize the risk factors for kidney injury in this population and mitigate these risks. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of kidney disease pertaining to heart and liver transplantation in children with guidance on monitoring, diagnosis, prevention, and management.

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Correspondence to Mina Matsuda-Abedini.

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1. b; 2. a; 3. c; 4. d; 5. d

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Kirpalani, A., Teoh, C.W., Ng, V.L. et al. Kidney disease in children with heart or liver transplant. Pediatr Nephrol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-021-04949-5

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Keywords

  • Children
  • Heart transplantation
  • Liver transplantation
  • Acute kidney injury
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Kidney failure with replacement therapy
  • Risk factors