Emerging monitoring technologies in kidney transplantation

Abstract

Non-invasive technologies to monitor kidney allograft health utilizing high-throughput assays of blood and urine specimens are emerging out of the research realm and slowly becoming part of everyday clinical practice. HLA epitope analysis and eplet mismatch score determination promise a more refined approach to the pre-transplant recipient–donor HLA matching that may lead to reduced rejection risk. High-resolution HLA typing and multiplex single antigen bead assays are identifying potential new offending HLA antibody subtypes. There is increasing recognition of the deleterious role non-HLA antibodies play in post-transplant outcomes. Donor-derived cell-free DNA detected by next-generation sequencing is a promising biomarker for kidney transplant rejection. Multi-omics techniques are shedding light on discrete genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic signatures that correlate with and predict allograft outcomes. Over the next decade, a comprehensive approach to optimize kidney matching and monitor transplant recipients for acute and chronic graft dysfunction will likely involve a combination of those emerging technologies summarized in this review.

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Fig. 1

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Correspondence to Isa F. Ashoor.

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Ehlayel, A., Simms, K.J.A. & Ashoor, I.F. Emerging monitoring technologies in kidney transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-021-04929-9

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Keywords

  • Biomarker
  • Kidney transplant
  • Rejection
  • Graft dysfunction
  • Multi-omics
  • Emerging technologies