Urinary tract infections in children with spina bifida: an inventory of 41 European centers


The introduction of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) in 1972 and low-dose chemoprophylaxis (LDCP, antibiotic prophylaxis), anticholinergic medication and urological surgery in the mid-1980s has improved the long-term outcome of renal function in children with neurogenic bladder sphincter dysfunction (NBSD) due to spina bifida (SB). We have conducted a European survey of the protocols for diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections (UTIs) in these children, using a web-based questionnaire. The responses from 41 centers in 14 European countries confirm that although most centers have standardized protocols for treating UTIs, there is no consensus among European centers in terms of protocols for preventing, diagnosing and treating UTIs in children with NBSD and for CIC.

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clean intermittent catheterization


low dose chemoprophylaxis, antibiotic prophylaxis


neurogenic bladder sphincter dysfunction


spina bifida


urinary tract infection


vesico-ureteral reflux


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Correspondence to Bas S. H. J. Zegers.

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Zegers, B.S.H.J., Winkler–Seinstra, P.L.H., Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M. et al. Urinary tract infections in children with spina bifida: an inventory of 41 European centers. Pediatr Nephrol 24, 783–788 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-008-1067-8

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  • Antibiotic prophylaxis
  • Clean intermittent catheterization
  • Neurogenic bladder sphincter dysfunction
  • Spina bifida
  • Urinary tract infection