A significant number of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), suggesting the role of preload overload. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased cardiac output (CO) might be a contributing factor for increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in these children. Patients aged 6–20 years with CKD stages 2–4 were enrolled. Echocardiograms were performed to assess LV function and geometry at rest and during exercise. Heart rate, stroke volume, and CO were also assessed at rest and during exercise. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) monitoring was performed. Of the patients enrolled in this study, 17% had LVH. Increased stroke volume and CO were observed in patients with LVH compared to patients without LVH. Univariate analysis revealed significant positive associations between LVMI and CO, stroke volume, body mass index, pulse pressure from mean 24-h AMBP, and mean 24-h systolic BP load. No association with heart rate, age, parathyroid hormone, glomerular filtration rate, or anemia was observed. Only CO (β = 1.98, p = 0.0005) was independently associated with increased LVMI in multivariate modeling (model R 2 = 0.25). The results of this study suggest that increased CO might predispose to increased LVMI in pediatric patients with CKD. Adaptations may be required to meet increased metabolic demand in these patients.
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Research supported by grants 2K12HD28827 and K23 HL69296–01 from the National Institutes of Health (MM). This study was initially presented in abstract form at the American Society of Pediatric Nephrology Annual Meeting in May 2008.
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Weaver, D.J., Kimball, T.R., Koury, P.R. et al. Cardiac output and associated left ventricular hypertrophy in pediatric chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 24, 565–570 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-008-1052-2
- Cardiac output
- Chronic kidney disease
- Left ventricular hypertrophy