Prediction of postoperative complications and survival after laparoscopic gastrectomy using preoperative Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index in elderly gastric cancer patients



Preoperative nutritional assessment of cancer patients is important to reduce postoperative complications. Several studies have reported the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) to be useful in assessing underlying diseases and long-term outcomes of hospitalized patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of preoperative GNRI on short- and long-term outcomes in elderly gastric cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy.


We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients aged ≥ 65 years who underwent laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy and had R0 resection for histologically confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma. The cutoff value for preoperative GNRI was determined to be 85.7 based on the incidence of postoperative complications. Patients were categorized into two groups: low GNRI group and normal GNRI group.


Univariate analyses of the 303 patients revealed that the incidence of postoperative complications was significantly associated with the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification (ASA-PS), C-reactive protein (CRP), GNRI (p < 0.001), and operative procedure. Multivariate analyses revealed that preoperative GNRI (odds ratio [OR] 2.716; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.166–6.328; p = 0.021) and operative procedure (OR 2.459; 95% CI 1.378–4.390; p = 0.002) were independently associated with the incidence of postoperative complications.

Univariate analyses showed that overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with ASA-PS, tumor size, tumor differentiation, pathological tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CRP, GNRI, and postoperative complications. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that ASA-PS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.755; 95% CI 2.141–6.585; p < 0.001), tumor differentiation (HR 1.898; 95% CI 1.191–3.025; p = 0.007), CEA (HR 1.645; 95% CI 1.024–2.643; p = 0.040), and GNRI (HR 2.093; 95% CI 1.105–3.963; p = 0.023) independently predicted OS.


GNRI is an important predictor of postoperative complications and overall survival in elderly gastric cancer patients. It is a reliable and cost-effective prognostic indicator that should be routinely evaluated.

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This study received no external funding.

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Correspondence to Noriyuki Hirahara.

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Drs. Noriyuki Hirahara, Yoshitsugu Tajima, Yusuke Fujii, Shunsuke Kaji, Tetsu Yamamoto, Ryoji Hyakudomi, Takahito Taniura, and Yasunari Kawabata have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.

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Hirahara, N., Tajima, Y., Fujii, Y. et al. Prediction of postoperative complications and survival after laparoscopic gastrectomy using preoperative Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index in elderly gastric cancer patients. Surg Endosc 35, 1202–1209 (2021).

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  • Gastric cancer
  • Geriatric nutritional risk index
  • Postoperative complications
  • Overall survival