New treatment method for refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): C-BLART (clip band ligation anti-reflux therapy)—a short-term study



C-BLART (clip band ligation anti-reflux therapy) has been reported as a new alternative endoscopic treatment for refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study evaluated the short-term efficacy of C-BLART for controlling GERD symptoms, esophageal acid exposure, esophagitis, and quality of life.


Patients with refractory GERD were recruited for a nonrandomized concurrent comparison, with 60 patients in the C-BLART with tailored PPI use group and 43 patients in the BID proton pump inhibitor (PPI) group. The primary outcomes were esophageal acid exposure and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure. The GERD-Q score, esophagitis grade, and adherence degree were also recorded. Crossover from the BID PPI group to the C-BLART with tailored PPI use group was allowed after 6 months.


The LES pressure and GERD-Q score improved more in the C-BLART with tailored PPI use group (P < 0.001) after 6 months, with no significant difference in the decrease in esophagitis compared with the baseline endoscopic results (P = 0.268). Treatment with PPIs had been halted in 43% of the patients at 6 months after C-BLART. At 12 months after C-BLART, the DeMeester score showed a significant improvement compared with the baseline measurements (P = 0.025). The GERD-Q score and LES pressure did not significantly improve compared with the baseline values (P = 0.102, P = 0.184) in C-BLART with tailored PPI use group. At 6 to 12 months, n = 6 (10%) patients had undergone laparoscopic fundoplication to control their symptoms in all the patients after C-BLART.


C-BLART is a novel treatment for controlling refractory GERD symptoms, esophageal acid exposure, and LES pressure according to this short-term analysis, safely performed endoscopically to create an anti-reflux barrier with ligated bands. Despite improvements in DeMeester score, LES pressure, and GERD-Q scores in the C-BLART with tailored PPI use group, many patients continue to demonstrate objective evidence of GERD.

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This work was supported by grants from the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFC1303601). No other funding organization played a role in the design or conduct of the study, the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data, or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to En-Qiang Linghu.

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Drs.Liu, Chai, Zhai, Zou, Feng, Li, Li, Zhang, Wang, Wang, and Linghu have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.

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Liu, S., Chai, N., Zhai, Y. et al. New treatment method for refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): C-BLART (clip band ligation anti-reflux therapy)—a short-term study. Surg Endosc 34, 4516–4524 (2020).

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  • Refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • Endoscopy
  • Cardia
  • Treatment outcome
  • Cardial anti-reflux band ligation