Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 1550–1555 | Cite as

Robotic single-site versus multiport laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a case-matched analysis of short- and long-term costs

  • Monika E. Hagen
  • Alexandre Balaphas
  • Michele Podetta
  • Peter Rohner
  • Minoa K. Jung
  • Nicolas C. Buchs
  • Leo Buehler
  • Jona M. Mendoza
  • Philippe Morel



Multiport laparoscopy is the gold-standard approach for cholecystectomy, and single-port laparoscopy has been developed to further reduce its invasiveness. A specific robotic single-port platform (da Vinci single-site, Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been released in 2011, which could technically facilitate single-site cholecystectomy. Current data show its feasibility; however, detailed short- and long-term analyses of costs and comparisons relative to multiport laparoscopy are not available to date.


Patients who underwent robotic single-site cholecystectomy for benign, clinically noninflammatory disease between 2011 and 2015 were matched for disease, age, gender, BMI, ASA classification, diagnosis, and elapsed year of surgery to a cohort of multiport cholecystectomies. Demographic, perioperative, and long-term data were collected retrospectively and analyzed. Perioperative and long-term costs including re-operations due to the primary procedure until February 2017 were compared across both cohorts.


99 patients who underwent robotic single-site cholecystectomy were matched to 99 patients with multiport cholecystectomy. A higher rate of outpatient procedures in the robotic cohort (31.3 vs. 17.2%, p = 0.0305) was found, and demographic parameters and perioperative clinical outcomes were similar. Perioperative costs were significantly higher for the robotic single-site patients (6158.0 vs. 4288.0 USD, p < 0.0001). With similar follow-up times of 59.0 and 58.9 months, respectively (p = 0.9552), significantly more patients of the robotic Single-Site cohort underwent follow-up surgery (7.1 vs. 0.0%, p = 0.0140), and follow-up costs were significantly higher for the robotic cohort (694.7 vs. 0.0 USD, p = 0.0145).


With similar early postoperative clinical results and a higher rate of re-operations, perioperative and long-term costs are significantly higher with robotic Single-Site cholecystectomy compared with multiport cholecystectomy. Considering the unclear clinical value of robotic single-site cholecystectomy and the significant short- and long-term costs, a call for further research and a debate as to who should bear the costs beyond the ones of the gold-standard treatment appear reasonable.


Cost Single-site Cholecystectomy da Vinci Robotic Robotic surgery Incisional hernia Hernia 



The authors thank Francoise Bernardi (University Hospital Geneva) for facilitating data collection.


No funding was received for this project.

Compliance with ethical standards


Monika E. Hagen received personal fees and nonfinancial support from Intuitive Surgical Inc. and personal fees from Ethicon Inc. outside this project. Minoa K. Jung received nonfinancial support from Intuitive Surgical Inc. outside this project. Alexandre Balaphas, Michele Podetta, Peter Rohner, Nicolas C. Buchs, Leo Buehler, Jona Mendoza, and Philippe Morel have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monika E. Hagen
    • 1
  • Alexandre Balaphas
    • 1
  • Michele Podetta
    • 1
  • Peter Rohner
    • 1
  • Minoa K. Jung
    • 1
  • Nicolas C. Buchs
    • 1
  • Leo Buehler
    • 1
  • Jona M. Mendoza
    • 1
  • Philippe Morel
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Digestive and Transplant Surgery, Department of SurgeryUniversity Hospital GenevaGenevaSwitzerland

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