The Dynamic Swallow Study (DSS) is a methodology used to objectively and quantitatively assess swallowing kinematics during Videofluoroscopic Swallow Studies (VFSS). No DSS normative data exist delineating superior and anterior hyoid displacement (Hsup and Hant, respectively), nor the ratio between Hsup and Hant (SAratio). The aims of this study were to (1) establish normative data for Hsup, Hant, and SAratio and (2) assess the effects of age, sex, and bolus size on these measures in non-dysphagic patients, within the context of DSS. VFSSs were reviewed for consecutive elderly (≥ 65 years) and non-elderly (< 65 years) male and female non-dysphagic patients. Measurements of Hsup, Hant, and SAratio were made using a novel measurement methodology within the context of the Dynamic Swallow Study (DSS) protocol. Statistical analysis was performed to establish interaction effects and main effects of age, sex, and bolus size on Hsup, Hant, and SAratio. Descriptive statistics (mean ± standard deviations) are outlined for Hsup, Hant, and SAratio. Hsup was significantly effected by bolus size and age. Additionally, a significant three-way interaction of age, sex, and bolus size was observed. Hant was significantly effected by bolus size and sex, but no two- or three-way interactions were present. Neither bolus size, age, nor sex significantly effected SAratio. Age, sex, and bolus size normative data were established for Hsup, Hant, and SAratio for VFSS kinematic analysis. By outlining these measures, one can more thoroughly evaluate the areas of specific swallowing impairment, better determine the therapy targets, and track changes over time.
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The authors thank Michelle Troche, PhD, CCC-SLP for contributions to manuscript review and statistical guidance.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Authors James Curtis, Jonelyn Langenstein, and Sarah Schenider declare that they each have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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