Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 555–566 | Cite as

Transcriptional study of the enhanced ε-poly-l-lysine productivity in culture using glucose and glycerol as a mixed carbon source

  • Xin Zeng
  • Wenyun Miao
  • Beibei Wen
  • Zhonggui Mao
  • Mingzhi ZhuEmail author
  • Xusheng ChenEmail author
Research Paper


A glucose–glycerol mixed carbon source (MCS) can substantially reduce batch fermentation time and improve ε-poly-l-lysine (ε-PL) productivity, which was of great significance in industrial microbial fermentation. This study aims to disclose the physiological mechanism by transcriptome analyses. In the MCS, the enhancements of gene transcription mainly emerged in central carbon metabolism, l-lysine synthesis as well as cell respiration, and these results were subsequently proved by quantitative real-time PCR assay. Intracellular l-lysine determination and exhaust gas analysis further confirmed the huge precursor l-lysine pool and active cell respiration in the MCS. Interestingly, in the MCS, pls was remarkably up-regulated than those in single carbon sources without transcriptional improvement of HrdD, which indicated that the improved ε-PL productivity was supported by other regulators rather than hrdD. This study exposed the physiological basis of the improved ε-PL productivity in the MCS, which provided references for studies on other biochemicals production using multiple substrates.


ε-Poly-l-lysine Fermentation Mixed carbon source Transcriptome analysis Cell physiology 



This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31671846, 31301556), the Science and Technology Department of Jiangsu Province (BY2016022-25), the Open Project Program of the Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, China (KLIBKF201302), the Jiangsu Province Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Industrial Fermentation Industry Development Program and the Innovation Team of Scientific Research Platform of Anhui Province, China (KJ2015TD001) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2018M632962).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

449_2018_2058_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1809 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Life SciencesHuaibei Normal UniversityHuaibeiChina
  2. 2.The Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of BiotechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Tea Science of Ministry of EducationHunan Agricultural UniversityChangshaChina
  4. 4.Family Planning Service CenterRizhao Maternal and Child Care Service HospitalRizhaoChina

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