, Volume 188, Issue 1, pp 117–127 | Cite as

Temperature affects phenological synchrony in a tree-killing bark beetle

  • J. A. LombardoEmail author
  • A. S. Weed
  • C. F. Aoki
  • B. T. Sullivan
  • M. P. Ayres
Population ecology – original research


Phenological synchrony can promote population growth in species with positive density dependence. Variation among life stages in the thermal thresholds for development can foster phenological synchrony under thermal regimes that include frequent occurrence of temperatures between developmental thresholds. The southern pine beetle is an insect with positive density dependence that has recently undergone important shifts in population abundance at the northern extremes of their distribution. We evaluated the hypothesis that cooler winter temperatures in their northern range cause a convergence of the population life stage structure that leads to synchrony in spring flight phenology. We used a combination of approaches. First, in situ laboratory experiments demonstrated a threshold temperature for pupation that was greater than was required for larval development; rearing larvae at lower temperatures increased the pooling of individuals at the end stage of larval development and synchrony in adult emergence. Second, a development rate model showed a similar convergence of the majority of the population at the end stage of larval development when brood experienced the cooler temperatures of the northern region, but not with temperatures from the southern region, or as a null model. Finally, field trapping of wild beetles showed greater synchrony in the pine forests of New Jersey than in the warmer, historically occupied forests of Georgia and Mississippi. Given these results, pine-dominated forests in the northern edge of the southern pine beetle’s range may experience more frequent occurrence of outbreaks, due to the positive feedbacks associated with a synchronous spring emergence of this insect.


Southern pine beetle Stage structure Synchrony Climate change Development model 



We thank the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and officials of both the Oconee and Homochitto National Forests (particularly Lee Dunnam) for help in acquiring resources and providing sites for traps. Mike Gallagher, Melanie Maghirang, Brett Manning, JoAnne Barrett, Matt Cloud, Erich Vallery, and Zachary Oliver provided assistance in both field and lab. Thanks to Jim Meeker and Chris Crowe for SPB trapping data and to Ken Clark and John Dighton for logistical support. Research was financially supported by NRI/AFRI 2009-65104-05731 and a cooperative agreement with the Southern Research Station.

Author contribution statement

This research was conceived by MPA and BTS. The experiments were designed by MPA, BTS, JAL, CFA, and ASW. Experiments were conducted by JAL, CFA, and ASW. Data analysis and figures completed by JAL, with input from all authors. JAL wrote the manuscript with considerable editorial contributions from all authors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesDartmouth CollegeHanoverUSA
  2. 2.National Park ServiceNortheast Temperate NetworkWoodstockUSA
  3. 3.USDA Forest ServiceSouthern Research StationPinevilleUSA

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