Advertisement

Oecologia

, Volume 187, Issue 1, pp 245–253 | Cite as

Multiple filters affect tree species assembly in mid-latitude forest communities

  • Y. Kubota
  • B. Kusumoto
  • T. Shiono
  • W. Ulrich
Community ecology – original research

Abstract

Species assembly patterns of local communities are shaped by the balance between multiple abiotic/biotic filters and dispersal that both select individuals from species pools at the regional scale. Knowledge regarding functional assembly can provide insight into the relative importance of the deterministic and stochastic processes that shape species assembly. We evaluated the hierarchical roles of the α niche and β niches by analyzing the influence of environmental filtering relative to functional traits on geographical patterns of tree species assembly in mid-latitude forests. Using forest plot datasets, we examined the α niche traits (leaf and wood traits) and β niche properties (cold/drought tolerance) of tree species, and tested non-randomness (clustering/over-dispersion) of trait assembly based on null models that assumed two types of species pools related to biogeographical regions. For most plots, species assembly patterns fell within the range of random expectation. However, particularly for cold/drought tolerance-related β niche properties, deviation from randomness was frequently found; non-random clustering was predominant in higher latitudes with harsh climates. Our findings demonstrate that both randomness and non-randomness in trait assembly emerged as a result of the α and β niches, although we suggest the potential role of dispersal processes and/or species equalization through trait similarities in generating the prevalence of randomness. Clustering of β niche traits along latitudinal climatic gradients provides clear evidence of species sorting by filtering particular traits. Our results reveal that multiple filters through functional niches and stochastic processes jointly shape geographical patterns of species assembly across mid-latitude forests.

Keywords

Alpha niche Beta niche Climate filtering Functional clustering Neutrality 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support was provided by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (nos. 21310025, 21247006, 24651037, 15H04424) and the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (4-1501) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, University of the Ryukyus Strategic Research Grant, and the Polish National Science Centre (2014/13/B/NZ8/04681).

Author contribution statement

YK conceived the hypothesis, designed the study and wrote the manuscript. BK and TS compiled the data and performed the statistical analysis. WU contributed to interpreting results and revising the manuscript. All authors contributed to the final version.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

442_2018_4122_MOESM1_ESM.docx (594 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 594 kb)

References

  1. Ackerly DD (2004) Adaptation, niche conservatism and convergence: comparative studies of leaf evolution in California chaparral. Am Nat 163:654–671.  https://doi.org/10.1086/383062 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackerly DD, Schwilk DW, Webb CO (2006) Niche evolution and adaptive radiation: testing the order of trait divergence. Ecology 87:S50–S61.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[50:NEAART]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adler PB, HilleRisLambers J, Levine JM (2007) A niche for neutrality. Ecol Lett 10:95–104.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00996.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Blomberg SP, Garland T Jr, Ives AR (2003) Testing for phylogenetic signal in comparative data: behavioral traits are more labile. Evolution 57:717–745.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb00285.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chesson P (2000) Mechanisms of maintenance of species diversity. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 31:343–366.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.31.1.343 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Colwell RK, Winkler DW (1984) A null model for null models in biogeography. In: Strong DR, Simberloff D, Abele LG, Thistle AB (eds) Ecological communities: conceptual issues and the evidence. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 344–359Google Scholar
  7. Davies TJ, Kraft NJB, Salamin N, Wolkovich EM (2012) Incompletely resolved phylogenetic trees inflate estimates of phylogenetic conservatism. Ecology 93:242–247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. de Bello F (2012) The quest for trait convergence and divergence in community assembly: are null-models the magic wand? Global Ecol Biogeogr 21:312–317.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2011.00682.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. de Bello F, Lavorel S, Lavergne S, Albert CH, Boulangeat I, Mazel F, Thuiller W (2013) Hierarchical effects of environmental filters on the functional structure of plant communities: a case study in the French Alps. Ecography 36:393–402.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07438.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Feng G, Mi X, Eiserhardt WL, Jin G, Sang W, Lu Z, Wang X, Li X, Li B, Sun I, Ma K, Svenning J-C (2015) Assembly of forest communities across East Asia—insights from phylogenetic community structure and species pool scaling. Sci Rep 5:9337.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep09337 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Fischer AG (1960) Latitudinal variation in organic diversity. Evolution 14:61–81.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2405923 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gerhold P, Cahill JF Jr, Winter M, Bartish IV, Prinzing A (2015) Phylogenetic patterns are not proxies of community assembly mechanisms (they are far better). Funct Ecol 29:600–614.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12425 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Götzenberger L, de Bello F, Bråthen KA, Davison J, Dubuis A, Guisan A, Lepš J, Lindborg R, Moora M, Pärtel M, Pellissier L, Pottier J, Vittoz P, Zobel K, Zobel M (2012) Ecological assembly rules in plant communities—approaches, patterns and prospects. Biol Rev 87:111–127.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2011.00187.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gravel D, Canham CD, Beaudet M, Messier C (2006) Reconciling niche and neutrality: the continuum hypothesis. Ecol Lett 9:399–409.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00884.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hawkins BA, Rodrìguez MA, Weller SG (2011) Global angiosperm family richness revisited: linking ecology and evolution to climate. J Biogeogr 38:1253–1266.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02490.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hubbell SP (2001) The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  17. Hubbell SP (2006) Neutral theory and the evolution of ecological equivalence. Ecology 87:1387–1398.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[1387:NTATEO]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ingram T, Shurin JB (2009) Trait-based assembly and phylogenetic structure in northeast Pacific rockfish assemblages. Ecology 90:2444–2453.  https://doi.org/10.1890/08-1841.1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Jabot F, Etienne RS, Chave J (2008) Reconciling neutral community models and environmental filtering: theory and an empirical test. Oikos 117:1308–1320.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2008.16724.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. JMA mesh climate data 2000 (2002) Japan Meteorological Agency, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  21. Keddy PA (1992) Assembly and response rules: two goals for predictive community ecology. J Veg Sci 3:157–164.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3235676 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kembel SW, Hubbell SP (2006) The phylogenetic structure of a neotropical forest tree community. Ecology 87:S86–S99.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[86:TPSOAN]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kooyman R, Rossetto M, Cornwell W, Westoby M (2011) Phylogenetic tests of community assembly across regional to continental scales in tropical and subtropical rain forests. Global Ecol Biogeogr 20:707–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kubota Y et al (2016) Non-neutrality in forest communities: evolutionary and ecological determinants of tree species abundance distributions. Oikos 125:237–244.  https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.02232 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kubota Y, Kusumoto B, Shiono T, Tanaka T (2017) Phylogenetic properties of tertiary relict flora in the East Asian continental islands: imprint of climatic niche conservatism and in situ diversification. Ecography 40:436–447.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.02033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kusumoto B, Shiono T, Miyoshi M, Maeshiro R, Fujii S, Kuuluvainen T, Kubota Y (2015) Functional response of plant communities to clearcutting: management impacts differ between forest vegetation zones. J Appl Ecol 52:171–180.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12367 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kusumoto B, Baba A, Fujii S, Fukasawa H, Honda M, Miyagi Y, Nanki D, Osako T, Shinohara H, Shiono T, Kubota Y (2016) Dispersal process driving subtropical forest reassembly: evidence from functional and phylogenetic analysis. Ecol Res 31:645.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-016-1373-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mittelbach GG, Schemske DW, Cornell HV, Allen AP, Brown JM, Bush MB, Harrison SP, Hurlbert AH, Knowlton N, Lessios HA, McCain CM, McCune AR, McDade LA, McPeek MA, Near TJ, Price TD, Ricklefs RE, Roy K, Sax DF, Schluter D, Sobel JM, Turelli M (2007) Evolution of the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction, and biogeography. Ecol Lett 10:315–331.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01020.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Muscarella R, Uriarte M, Aide TM, Erickson DL, Forero-Montana JW, Kress J, Swenson NG, Zimmerman JK (2015) Functional convergence and phylogenetic divergence during secondary succession of subtropical wet forests in Puerto Rico. J Veg Sci 27:283–294.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12354 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Kindt R, Legendre P, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens MHH, Wagner H (2012) vegan: community ecology package: R package version 2.1-13/r2115. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan
  31. R Development Core Team (2012) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. http://www.r-project.org/
  32. Shiono T, Kusumoto B, Maeshiro R, Fujii S, Götzenberger L, de Bello F, Kubota Y (2015) Climatic drivers of trait assembly in woody plants in Japan. J Biogeogr 42:1176–1186.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12503 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Silvertown J (2004) Plant coexistence and the niche. Trends Ecol Evol 19:605–611.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2004.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Silvertown J, Dodd M, Gowing D, Lawson C, McConway K (2006a) Phylogeny and the hierarchical organization of plant diversity. Ecology 87:S39–S49.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[39:PATHOO]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Silvertown J, McConway K, Gowing D, Dodd M, Fay MF, Joseph JA, Dolphin K (2006b) Absence of phylogenetic signal in the niche structure of meadow plant communities. Proc R Soc Lond B 273:39–44.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2005.3288 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Suzuki SN, Ishihara M, Hidaka A (2015) Regional-scale directional changes in abundance of tree species along a temperature gradient in Japan. Global Change Biol 21:3436–3444.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12911 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sydenham MAK, Moe SR, Totland Ø, Eldegard K (2015) Does multi-level environmental filtering determine the functional and phylogenetic composition of wild bee species assemblages? Ecography 38:140–153.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.00938 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ulrich W, Piwczyński M, Maestre FT, Gotelli NJ (2012) Null model tests for niche conservatism, phylogenetic assortment and habitat filtering. Methods Ecol Evol 3:930–939.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2012.00217.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ulrich W, Kusumoto B, Shiono T, Kubota Y (2015) Climatic and geographic correlates of global forest tree species—abundance distributions and community evenness. J Veg Sci 27:295–305.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12346 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ulrich W, Baselga A, Kusumoto B, Shiono T, Tuomisto H, Kubota Y (2017) The tangled link between β- and γ-diversity: a Narcissus effect weakens statistical inferences in null model analyses of diversity patterns. Global Ecol Biogeogr 26:1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12527 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ulrich W, Kubota Y, Kusumoto B, Baselga A, Tuomisto H, Gotelli NJ (2018) Species richness correlates of raw and standardized co-occurrence metrics. Global Ecol Biogeogr.  https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12711 Google Scholar
  42. Whittaker RH (1975) Communities and ecosystems. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Willig MR, Kaufman DM, Stevens RD (2003) Latitudinal gradients of biodiversity: pattern, process, scale, and synthesis. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34:273–309.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.012103.144032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wilson JB (1995) Null models for assembly rules: the Jack Horner effect is more insidious than the Narcissus effect. Oikos 72:139–144.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3546047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wilson JB (1999) Guilds, functional types and ecological groups. Oikos 86:507–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zanne AE, Tank DC, Cornwell WK, Eastman JM, Smith SA, FitzJohn RG, McGlinn DJ, O’Meara BC, Moles AT, Reich PB, Royer DL, Soltis DE, Stevens PF, Westoby M, Wright IJ, Aarssen L, Bertin RI, Calaminus A, Govaerts R, Hemmings F, Leishman MR, Oleksyn J, Soltis PS, Swenson NG, Warman L, Beaulieu JM (2014) Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments. Nature 506:89–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang SB, Slik JWF, Zhang JL, Cao KF (2011) Spatial patterns of wood traits in China are controlled by phylogeny and the environment. Global Ecol Biogeogr 20:241–250.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00582.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory Ecology and Systematics, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of the RyukyusNishiharaJapan
  2. 2.Marine and Terrestrial Field Ecology, Tropical Biosphere Research CenterUniversity of the RyukyusNishiharaJapan
  3. 3.Center for Strategic Research ProjectUniversity of the RyukyusNishiharaJapan
  4. 4.Chair of Ecology and BiogeographyNicolaus Copernicus UniversityToruńPoland

Personalised recommendations