High frequency of knockdown resistance mutations in the para gene of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) samples collected from goats


Fleas are ectoparasites of mammals and birds. In livestock such as sheep and goat, flea bites cause many clinical signs. Several types of insecticides including pyrethroids are used to struggle against fleas. The widespread use of these insecticides causes an increase in the number of resistant individuals in flea populations. T929V and L1014F mutations corresponding to pyrethroid resistance have been found in the para gene of cat fleas. We aimed to investigate T929V and L1014F mutations in flea samples (n:162) collected from goats in seven different farms where cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, had been used intensively. To achieve this aim, collected flea samples were morphologically identified under a stereo microscope and DNA isolation was conducted by HotSHOT method. Later, a bi-PASA targeting the para gene was applied to identify both mutations in corresponding samples. According to the results obtained, all fleas were Ctenocephalides felis. Frequencies of T929V and L1014F mutations in fleas were 92.6% (150/162) and 95.7% (155/162), respectively. In conclusion, the frequency of mutations related to pyrethroid resistance was very high in the fleas collected from all the farms and it was thought that the high frequency of these mutations can be attributed to intensive use of pyrethroids.

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This study was supported by a project given by the Ege University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit (Project number: TGA-2019-20233) to H.C.

Author information




Conceptualization: Hüseyin Can.

Methodology: Hüseyin Can, Cemal Ün.

Formal analysis and investigation: Sedef Erkunt Alak, Ahmet Efe Köseoğlu, Çağrı Kandemir, Turğay Taşkın, Samiye Demir, Mert Döşkaya.

Writing—original draft preparation: Hüseyin Can, Cemal Ün, Sedef Erkunt Alak, Ahmet Efe Köseoğlu.

Writing—review and editing: Hüseyin Can, Cemal Ün, Mert Döşkaya, Samiye Demir, Çağrı Kandemir, Turğay Taşkın.

Funding acquisition: Hüseyin Can.

Resources: Hüseyin Can, Cemal Ün.

Supervision: Hüseyin Can, Cemal Ün.

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Correspondence to Hüseyin Can.

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Erkunt Alak, S., Köseoğlu, A.E., Kandemir, Ç. et al. High frequency of knockdown resistance mutations in the para gene of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) samples collected from goats. Parasitol Res 119, 2067–2073 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06714-3

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  • T929V
  • L1014F
  • Flea
  • Ctenocephalides felis
  • Pyrethroid resistance