Chemical analysis and giardicidal effectiveness of the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf
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Searching for new effective and safe treatment of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) parasite is mandatory. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of an aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of Cymbagogon citratus (CcAE) against G. lamblia and to reveal the phenolic and antioxidant properties of CcAE. Methods: CcAE (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 500 μg/ml) was in vitro incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites in comparison with metronidazole (MTZ 10 and 25 μg/ml). Growth inhibition was evaluated after 3, 24, and 48 h of drug exposure. Infected groups of mice were orally treated for 7 days with CcAE at 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day/mouse, in comparison with a group treated with 15 mg/kg/day/mouse MTZ for the same period. The total phenolic components (TPC), the total flavonoid components (TFC), the 2,2,diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantitative and qualitative phenolic content were chemically estimated. After 24 and 48 h of in vitro incubation, the estimated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 500 and 400 μg/ml, respectively, and the concentrations that induced 50% growth inhibition (IC50) were 93.8 and 60.4 μg/ml, respectively (P < 0.001). Mice given 500 mg/kg CcAE showed 100% stool clearance of G. lamblia stages, similar to MTZ-treated control group (P < 0.001). The TPC was 10.7 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g and the TFC was 23.9 ± 0.3 mg quercetin/g, and the estimated IC50 for DPPH free radical scavenging was 16.4 ± 0.1 mg/ml. HPLC revealed the major phenolic components of CcAE to be carnosic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamiac acid, quercetin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion, CcAE is significantly effective against G. lamblia in vitro and in vivo, and has considerable phenolic and antioxidant properties.
KeywordsGiardia lamblia Cymbagogon citratus In vitro Mice Chemical analysis HPLC
Compliance with ethical standards
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
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