Chemical analysis and giardicidal effectiveness of the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf
- 4 Downloads
Searching for new effective and safe treatment of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) parasite is mandatory. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of an aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of Cymbagogon citratus (CcAE) against G. lamblia and to reveal the phenolic and antioxidant properties of CcAE. Methods: CcAE (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 500 μg/ml) was in vitro incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites in comparison with metronidazole (MTZ 10 and 25 μg/ml). Growth inhibition was evaluated after 3, 24, and 48 h of drug exposure. Infected groups of mice were orally treated for 7 days with CcAE at 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day/mouse, in comparison with a group treated with 15 mg/kg/day/mouse MTZ for the same period. The total phenolic components (TPC), the total flavonoid components (TFC), the 2,2,diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantitative and qualitative phenolic content were chemically estimated. After 24 and 48 h of in vitro incubation, the estimated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 500 and 400 μg/ml, respectively, and the concentrations that induced 50% growth inhibition (IC50) were 93.8 and 60.4 μg/ml, respectively (P < 0.001). Mice given 500 mg/kg CcAE showed 100% stool clearance of G. lamblia stages, similar to MTZ-treated control group (P < 0.001). The TPC was 10.7 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g and the TFC was 23.9 ± 0.3 mg quercetin/g, and the estimated IC50 for DPPH free radical scavenging was 16.4 ± 0.1 mg/ml. HPLC revealed the major phenolic components of CcAE to be carnosic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamiac acid, quercetin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion, CcAE is significantly effective against G. lamblia in vitro and in vivo, and has considerable phenolic and antioxidant properties.
KeywordsGiardia lamblia Cymbagogon citratus In vitro Mice Chemical analysis HPLC
Compliance with ethical standards
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
- Abdalla SF, Ramadan NI, Mohamed AA, El-Deeb HK, Al-Khadrawy FM, Badawy AF (2011) A study on the effect of Myrtus communis and Olibanum on Giardia lamblia infection in Egypt. PUJ 4(1):89–100Google Scholar
- Kouassi EK, Coulibaly I, Rodica P, Pintea A, Ouattara S, Odagiu A (2017) HPLC phenolic compounds analysis and antifungal activity of extract's from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf against Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium oxysporum sp tulipae. J Sci Res Rep 15(1):1–11Google Scholar
- Kpoviessi S, Bero J, Agbani P, Gbaguidi F, Kpadonou-Kpoviessi B, Sinsin B, Accrombessi G, Frédérich M, Moudachirou M, Quetin-Leclercq J (2014) Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of the essential oils of four Cymbopogon species from Benin. J Ethnopharmacol 151(1):652–659CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Machado M, Dinis AM, Salgueiro L, Cavaleiro C, Custódio JB, Sousa Mdo C (2010) Anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils: effects of Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, and Lippia graveolens on trophozoites growth, viability, adherence, and ultrastructure. Parasitol Res 106(5):1205–1215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Njume C, Jide AA, Ndip RN (2011) Aqueous and organic solvent-extracts of selected south African medicinal plants possess antimicrobial activity against drug-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori: inhibitory and bactericidal potential. Int J Mol Sci 12(9):5652–5665CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Oliveira VC, Moura DM, Lopes JA, de Andrade PP, da Silva NH, Figueiredo RC (2009) Effects of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf., Lippia sidoides Cham., and Ocimum gratissimum L. on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes. Parasitol Res 104(5):1053–1059CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Santoro GF, Cardoso MG, Guimarães LGL, Freire JM, Soares MJ (2007) Anti-proliferative effect of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemongrass) on intracellular amastigotes, bloodstream trypomastigotes and culture epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida). Parasitology 134:1649–1656CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Torgerson PR, Devleesschauwer B, Praet N, Speybroeck N, Willingham AL, Kasuga F, Rokni MB, Zhou XN, Fèvre EM, Sripa B, Gargouri N, Fürst T, Budke CM, Carabin H, Kirk MD, Angulo FJ, Havelaar A, de Silva N (2015) World Health Organization estimates of the global and regional disease burden of 11 foodborne parasitic diseases: a data synthesis. von Seidlein L. PLoS Med 12(12):e1001920CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar