Parasitology Research

, Volume 117, Issue 5, pp 1613–1620 | Cite as

Bulk tank milk prevalence and production losses, spatial analysis, and predictive risk mapping of Ostertagia ostertagi infections in Mexican cattle herds

  • Abel Villa-Mancera
  • César Pastelín-Rojas
  • Jaime Olivares-Pérez
  • Alejandro Córdova-Izquierdo
  • Alejandro Reynoso-Palomar
Original Paper


This study investigated the prevalence, production losses, spatial clustering, and predictive risk mapping in different climate zones in five states of Mexico. The bulk tank milk samples obtained between January and April 2015 were analyzed for antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi using the Svanovir ELISA. A total of 1204 farm owners or managers answered the questionnaire. The overall herd prevalence and mean optical density ratio (ODR) of parasite were 61.96% and 0.55, respectively. Overall, the production loss was approximately 0.542 kg of milk per parasited cow per day (mean ODR = 0.92, 142 farms, 11.79%). The spatial disease cluster analysis using SatScan software indicated that two high-risk clusters were observed. In the multivariable analysis, three models were tested for potential association with the ELISA results supported by climatic, environmental, and management factors. The final logistic regression model based on both climatic/environmental and management variables included the factors rainfall, elevation, land surface temperature (LST) day, and parasite control program that were significantly associated with an increased risk of infection. Geostatistical kriging was applied to generate a risk map for the presence of parasite in dairy cattle herds in Mexico. The results indicate that climatic and meteorological factors had a higher potential impact on the spatial distribution of O. ostertagi than the management factors.


Ostertagia ostertagi Prevalence Bulk tank milk Production losses Risk factors Geographical information system GIS Risk mapping Cows Mexico Epidemiology 



The authors are grateful to Jesús Valle Juárez for providing excellent technical assistance.

Authors’ contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AV and CP. Performed the experiments: AV, CP, AC, and AR. Analyzed the data: AV, AC, and AR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AV, JO, and AR. Wrote the paper: AV, CP, and JO. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding information

This study was supported by Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (VIEP-VIMA-NAT-17-I).

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

436_2018_5845_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (13 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 12 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y ZootecniaBenemérita Universidad Autónoma de PueblaTecamachalcoMexico
  2. 2.Unidad Académica de Medicina Veterinaria y ZootecniaUniversidad Autónoma de GuerreroCiudad AltamiranoMexico
  3. 3.Departamento de Producción Agrícola y AnimalUniversidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad XochimilcoMexico CityMexico

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