, Volume 137, Issue 2, pp 231–240 | Cite as

Some details of muscles innervations by FMRF-like nerve elements in planarian Girardia tigrina

  • N. D. Kreshchenko
  • N. B. Terenina
  • A. V. Kuchin
Original paper


The study is dedicated to an identification of specific FMRF immunoreactivity in planarian (Girardia tigrina) with special attention to the FMRF-like neuropeptides location near muscle filaments. Using of whole mounts in conjunction with a confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals close spatial relationship of FMRF-immunopositive(-IP) nerves and planarian musculature. Morphological data provide an evidence for FMRF-like peptides participation in the innervations of planarian muscles. The results indicate that the larger part of muscular structures and organs (pharynx, mouth opening, body wall, and tail) of planarian body are deeply supplied by FMRF-IP nerve elements. Such observation of the peptidergic FMRF-IP neurons and its processes in vicinity of the muscle fibers can indicate an important role of the neuropeptides in the regulation of planarian muscle function.


Planarian Musculature Phalloidin Neuropeptides Confocal laser scanning microscopy 



The authors wish to thank Dr. V.A. Yashin for a valuable assistance with the software for confocal laser scanning microscope and Dr. M. Voronin for correcting English in the MS.

Compliance with ethical standards


The study was partly supported (to Kreshchenko N.D.) by Russian Foundation for Basic Research Grant No. 15-04-05948a.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

All procedures performed in this study involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutions at which the studies were conducted.

Supplementary material

435_2017_392_MOESM1_ESM.avi (48 mb)
Fig. 1 A 3-D projection of the tail end (to the top of movie) of planarian Girardia tigrina, showing the body wall musculature (in red) and the FMRF-IP nerve elements (cell bodies and fibers) in green, (note: the on Fig. 2 f image is one of it optical sections). (AVI 49154 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Cell Biophysics RASMoscow RegionRussia
  2. 2.Centre of ParasitologyA.N. Sevetcov Institute of Ecology and Evolution RASMoscowRussia

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