Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

, Volume 144, Issue 7, pp 1367–1373 | Cite as

No influence of smoking status on the performance of urine markers for the detection of bladder cancer

  • Susanne Deininger
  • J. Hennenlotter
  • S. Rausch
  • K. Docktor
  • E. Neumann
  • I. A. da Costa
  • J. Bedke
  • A. Stenzl
  • T. Todenhöfer
Original Article – Clinical Oncology



The performance of urinary markers for detecting bladder cancer (BC) is influenced by various factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of smoking habits on the performance of four commonly used urine markers.


Urine samples of 723 patients with suspected BC were analysed using urine cytology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunocytology (uCyt+ test), and quantitative nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) immunoassay. The smoking habits of all patients were recorded and a cystoscopy performed within 2 weeks after urinary marker testing. Rates of false negative and false positive results were compared between non-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers by contingency analyses.


We included 723 patients in this study, 431 (59.6%) of which were non-smokers, 215 former smokers (29.7%), and 77 (10.7%) current smokers. 148 patients (20.5%) had a tumour at the time of urinary marker testing. Respective rates of false positive test results among non-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers were: 16.3, 19.1, and 11.5% (p = 0.81) for urine cytology; 36.8, 42.0, and 32.7% for the uCyt+ test (p = 0.88); 18.0, 19.1, and 13.5% for FISH (p = 0.66); and 69.5, 71.6, and 71.2% for NMP22 (p = 0.67). Respective rates of false negatives among non-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers were: 31.4, 15.1, and 28.0% for cytology (p = 0.34); 21.4, 22.6, and 16.0% for uCyt+ test (p = 0.67); 24.3, 13.2, and 28.0% for FISH (p = 0.88); and 10.0, 18.9, and 8.0% for NMP22 (p = 0.80).


Our results strongly suggest that smoking habits do not affect performance characteristics of urinary markers in the diagnostics of BC.


Bladder cancer Cytology Fluorescence in situ hybridisation Immunocytology Nuclear matrix protein 22 Smoking status 



No funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. In the study a retrospective chart review but no specific study-related investigations were performed in the cohort. Therefore, in accordance with the ethics committee no informed consent was obtained in the framework of the study.

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyEberhard-Karls-UniversityTübingenGermany

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