Virchows Archiv

, Volume 472, Issue 1, pp 29–41 | Cite as

Esophagitis unrelated to reflux disease: current status and emerging diagnostic challenges

  • Melanie E. Johncilla
  • Amitabh Srivastava
Invited Annual Review Issue


There has been much progress in our understanding of esophageal inflammatory disorders in the past few years. This is particularly true about esophageal eosinophilia and PPI responsiveness, lymphocytic esophagitis and motility disorders, and short-term risk of neoplasia in esophageal leukoplakia. The current review will summarize esophageal injury patterns that primarily occur due to non-reflux causes, with a focus on usual pitfalls in biopsy diagnosis and recent advances in our knowledge of the more common forms of esophagitis.


Esophagus Inflammation Histopathology Eosinophilic esophagitis Lymphocytic esophagitis Leukoplakia 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyWeill Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

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