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Virchows Archiv

, Volume 472, Issue 3, pp 315–330 | Cite as

New tumor entities in the 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification of head and neck tumors: Nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and skull base

  • Lester D. R. Thompson
  • Alessandro Franchi
Review and Perspectives

Abstract

The World Health Organization recently published the 4th edition of the Classification of Head and Neck Tumors, including several new entities, emerging entities, and significant updates to the classification and characterization of tumor and tumor-like lesions, specifically as it relates to nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and skull base in this overview. Of note, three new entities (NUT carcinoma, seromucinous hamartoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma,) were added to this section, while emerging entities (SMARCB1-deficient carcinoma and HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features) and several tumor-like entities (respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma, chondromesenchymal hamartoma) were included as provisional diagnoses or discussed in the setting of the differential diagnosis. The sinonasal tract houses a significant diversity of entities, but interestingly, the total number of entities has been significantly reduced by excluding tumor types if they did not occur exclusively or predominantly at this site or if they are discussed in detail elsewhere in the book. Refinements to nomenclature and criteria were provided to sinonasal papilloma, borderline soft tissue tumors, and neuroendocrine neoplasms. Overall, the new WHO classification reflects the state of current understanding for many relatively rare neoplasms, with this article highlighting the most significant changes.

Keywords

Nasal cavity Paranasal sinuses Skull base Tumor WHO Carcinoma, squamous cell SMARCB1-deficient carcinoma HPV-related adenoid cystic carcinoma Sinonasal papilloma Biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma Neuroectodermal tumors Adenocarcinoma, sinonasal type Immunohistochemistry 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors have contributed to this work and they declare that there are no financial conflicts associated with this study.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Not applicable.

Copyright transfer agreement

We transfer the right to publish this manuscript in the journal Virchows Archives if accepted for publication. This article is an original work, is not under consideration, and has not been published previously in any form.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Southern California Permanente Medical GroupWoodland Hills Medical CenterWoodland HillsUSA
  2. 2.Section of Pathological Anatomy, Department of Surgery and Translational MedicineUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

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