Perceiver as polar planimeter: Direct perception of jumping, reaching, and jump-reaching affordances for the self and others
Runeson (Scandanavian Journal of Psychology 18:172–179, 1977) suggested that the polar planimeter might serve as an informative model system of perceptual mechanism. The key aspect of the polar planimeter is that it registers a higher order property of the environment without computational mediation on the basis of lower order properties, detecting task-specific information only. This aspect was posited as a hypothesis for the perception of jumping and reaching affordances for the self and another person. The findings supported this hypothesis. The perception of reaching while jumping significantly differed from an additive combination of jump-without-reaching and reach-without-jumping perception. The results are consistent with Gibson’s (The senses considered as perceptual systems, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA; Gibson, The senses considered as perceptual systems, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, 1966; The ecological approach to visual perception, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA; Gibson, The ecological approach to visual perception, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, 1979) theory of information—that aspects of the environment are specified by patterns in energetic media.
KeywordsDirect perception Affordances Context-sensitivity Action capabilities
The authors would like to thank Janie Harmon and Stephanie Cueto for all their work as confederates in this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
This manuscript was not supported by any funding, and I have no conflict of interests. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Barsingerhorn, A. D., Frank, T. J. M., Zaal, Smith, J., & Pepping, G. (2012). On possibilities for action: The past, present, and future of affordance research. The Journal of the Philosophical-Interdisciplinary Vanguard, 3, 54–69.Google Scholar
- Carello, C., Fitzpatrick, P., Domaniewicz, I., Chan, T., & Turvey, M. T. (1992). Effortful touch with minimal movement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 290–302.Google Scholar
- Carello, C., & Turvey, M. T. (2000). Rotational invariants and dynamic touch. In M. Heller (Ed.), Touch, representation and blindness (pp. 27–66). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Creem-Regehr, S. H., Gagnon, K. T., Guess, M. N., & Stefanucci, J. K. (2013). Relating spatial perspectives to the perception of other’s affordances: Providing a foundation for predicting the future behavior of others. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 1–14. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fajen, B. R., Riley, M. A., & Turvey, M. T. (2009). Information, affordances, and the control of action in sport. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 40, 79–107.Google Scholar
- Gibson, J. J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
- Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
- Michaels, C. F., & Carello, C. (1981). Direct perception. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Ramenzoni, V., Riley, M. A., Davis, T. J., Shockley, K., & Armstrong, R. (2008a). Tuning in to another person’s action capabilities: Perceiving maximal jumping-reach height from walking kinematics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34, 919–928. doi: 10.1037/0096-15126.96.36.1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramenzoni, V., Riley, M. A., Shockley, K., & Davis, T. J. (2008c). Carrying the height of the world on your shoulders: Encumbering observers reduces estimates of how high an actor can jump. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 1487–1495. doi: 10.1080/17470210802100073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ramenzoni, V. C., Riley, M. A., Davis, T., & Snyder, J. (2005). Perceiving whether or not another person can use a step to reach an object. In H. Heft & K. L. Marsh (Eds.), Studies in perception and action VIII (pp. 15–18). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Thomas, B. J., Wagman, J. B., Hawkins, M. M., Havens, M., & Riley, M. A. (2016). The independent perceptual calibration of action-neutral and -referential environmental properties. Perception. doi: 10.1177/0301006616679172.