Involvement of S-nitrosothiols modulation by S-nitrosoglutathione reductase in defence responses of lettuce and wild Lactuca spp. to biotrophic mildews
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Resistant Lactuca spp. genotypes can efficiently modulate levels of S-nitrosothiols as reactive nitrogen species derived from nitric oxide in their defence mechanism against invading biotrophic pathogens including lettuce downy mildew.
S-Nitrosylation belongs to principal signalling pathways of nitric oxide in plant development and stress responses. Protein S-nitrosylation is regulated by S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) as a key catabolic enzyme of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), the major intracellular S-nitrosothiol. GSNOR expression, level and activity were studied in leaves of selected genotypes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and wild Lactuca spp. during interactions with biotrophic mildews, Bremia lactucae (lettuce downy mildew), Golovinomyces cichoracearum (lettuce powdery mildew) and non-pathogen Pseudoidium neolycopersici (tomato powdery mildew) during 168 h post inoculation (hpi). GSNOR expression was increased in all genotypes both in the early phase at 6 hpi and later phase at 72 hpi, with a high increase observed in L. sativa UCDM2 responses to all three pathogens. GSNOR protein also showed two-phase increase, with highest changes in L. virosa–B. lactucae and L. sativa cv. UCDM2–G. cichoracearum pathosystems, whereas P. neolycopersici induced GSNOR protein at 72 hpi in all genotypes. Similarly, a general pattern of modulated GSNOR activities in response to biotrophic mildews involves a two-phase increase at 6 and 72 hpi. Lettuce downy mildew infection caused GSNOR activity slightly increased only in resistant L. saligna and L. virosa genotypes; however, all genotypes showed increased GSNOR activity both at 6 and 72 hpi by lettuce powdery mildew. We observed GSNOR-mediated decrease of S-nitrosothiols as a general feature of Lactuca spp. response to mildew infection, which was also confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of GSNOR and GSNO in infected plant tissues. Our results demonstrate that GSNOR is differentially modulated in interactions of susceptible and resistant Lactuca spp. genotypes with fungal mildews and uncover the role of S-nitrosylation in molecular mechanisms of plant responses to biotrophic pathogens.
KeywordsBremia lactucae Golovinomyces cichoracearum Lettuce downy mildew Lettuce powdery mildew Nitric oxide Pseudoidium neolycopersici
Hours post inoculation
Reactive nitrogen species
Reactive oxygen species
This research was supported by the Czech Grant Agency (501/12/0590), by Palacký University in Olomouc (IGA_PrF_2017_016, IGA_PrF_2017_001, IGA_PrF_2018_001), and by Ministry of Education, Youths and Sports, Czech Republic (MSM 6198959215).
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