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Recent advances in pharmacological, hormonal, and nutritional intervention for sarcopenia

Invited Review
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease

Abstract

Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, increased risk of fall-related injury, and often frailty. This review focuses on the recent advances of pharmacological, hormonal, and nutritional approaches for attenuating sarcopenia. The article is composed of the data reported in many basic and some clinical studies for mammalian muscles. Resistance training combined with amino acid-containing supplements is the gold standard to prevent sarcopenia. Supplementation with proteins (amino acids) only did not influence sarcopenic symptoms. A myostatin-inhibiting strategy is the most important candidate to prevent sarcopenia in humans. Milder caloric restriction (CR, 15–25%) would also be effective for age-related muscle atrophy in humans. Supplementation with ursolic acid and ghrelin is an intriguing candidate to combat sarcopenia, although further systematic and fundamental research is needed on this treatment.

Keywords

Sarcopenia Autophagy Myostatin Caloric restriction Ursolic acid 

Notes

Funding

This work was supported by a research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research C (No. 17K01755) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Liberal Arts, Environment and SocietyTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Physical TherapyHealth Sciences University of HokkaidoKanazawaJapan

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