Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology

, Volume 469, Issue 10, pp 1267–1275 | Cite as

Measurement of total CO2 in microliter samples of urine and other biological fluids using infrared detection of CO2

  • Francesco Trepiccione
  • Francesco Maria Iena
  • Laura Catalini
  • Francesco Martino Carpi
  • Mogens Koed
  • Sebastian FrischeEmail author
Integrative Physiology
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Integrative Physiology


The purpose of this study is to describe a low-cost and simply made instrument capable of measuring the total CO2 content of microliter volumes of biological fluids utilizing a commercially available CO2 sensor based on a NDIR detector. The described instrument is based on transformation of dissolved HCO3 to CO2 by acidification and subsequent measurement of the produced CO2. The instrument has a linear response in the range 0.025–10 μmol HCO3 , which enables measurements in fresh urine and plasma samples down to 5 μl. The values from plasma were compared to measurements made on 65 μl whole blood in an automatic blood gas analyzer and found not to differ significantly. Compared to currently commercially available instruments applying the same principles to measure total CO2, this study provides a simple and robust alternative which even can be used on smaller sample volumes.


Acid/base status Bicarbonate NDIR Urine Total CO2 


Compliance with ethical standards

Sources of support

The Water and Salt Research Center at the University of Aarhus was established and supported by the Danish National Research Foundation (Danmarks Grundforskningsfond). Francesco Trepiccione was supported by the Research Training Network (Marie Curie Research Program, EU, FP6). S. Frische is funded by the DFF: Medical Sciences and “MEMBRANES” at Aarhus University.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiomedicineUniversity of AarhusAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Cardio-Thoracic and Respiratory ScienceUniversity of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”NaplesItaly
  3. 3.School of Biosciences and Veterinary MedicineUniversity of CamerinoCamerinoItaly

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