Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery

, Volume 403, Issue 2, pp 203–212 | Cite as

Extended pancreatectomy as defined by the ISGPS: useful in selected cases of pancreatic cancer but invaluable in other complex pancreatic tumors

  • Abhishek Mitra
  • Esha Pai
  • Rohit Dusane
  • Priya Ranganathan
  • Ashwin DeSouza
  • Mahesh Goel
  • Shailesh V. Shrikhande



Extended pancreatectomy aimed at R0 resection of pancreatic tumors with adjacent vessel and organ involvement may be the only option for cure. This study was done with an objective to analyze the short- and long-term outcomes of extended pancreatic resections.


All pancreatectomies performed between 2006 and 2015 were included. The pancreatectomies were classified as standard or extended, as per the International Study Group for Pancreatic Surgery. All surgical complications and terminologies were according to Clavien-Dindo classification and International Study Group for Pancreatic Surgery guidelines. Morbidity and mortality were primary outcomes and disease-free survival was a secondary outcome.


Sixty-three extended and 620 standard pancreatectomies were performed. Major morbidity (Clavien grades III, IV and V) (37 vs. 29%, p = 0.21) and mortality (6 vs. 4%, p = 0.3) for extended pancreatectomies were comparable to those for standard pancreatectomies. Blood loss > 855 ml, need for blood transfusion, and tumor size were independent risk factors for morbidity, and the latter two for mortality. Standard pancreatectomies were associated with better 3-year disease-free survival than extended pancreatectomies (67 vs. 41%, p < 0.001). Extended pancreatectomies resulted in a significantly better median disease-free survival for non-pancreatic adenocarcinoma vs. pancreatic adenocarcinoma (33.3 vs. 9.5 months, p = 0.01).


Extended pancreatectomies resulted in similar peri-operative morbidity and mortality compared to standard pancreatectomies. Although the survival of patients undergoing these complex procedures is inferior to standard pancreatectomies, they should be undertaken not only in selected cases of pancreatic cancer but even more so in other complex pancreatic tumors.


Extended Pancreatectomy Outcome Survival 


Authors’ contributions

Abhishek Mitra—acquisition of data, analysis, interpretation of data, drafting of manuscript, critical revision of manuscript; Esha Pai—acquisition of data, analysis, interpretation of data, drafting of manuscript; Priya Ranganathan—analysis and interpretation of data, critical revision of manuscript; Ashwin DeSouza—critical revision of manuscript; Mahesh Goel—critical revision of manuscript; Shailesh V. Shrikhande—study conception and design, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of manuscript, critical revision of manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhishek Mitra
    • 1
  • Esha Pai
    • 1
  • Rohit Dusane
    • 2
  • Priya Ranganathan
    • 3
  • Ashwin DeSouza
    • 1
  • Mahesh Goel
    • 1
  • Shailesh V. Shrikhande
    • 1
  1. 1.Gastrointestinal and Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Service, Department of Surgical OncologyTata Memorial HospitalMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of StatisticsTata Memorial HospitalMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of AnesthesiologyTata Memorial HospitalMumbaiIndia

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