Biological Cybernetics

, Volume 112, Issue 3, pp 227–235 | Cite as

A cardioid oscillator with asymmetric time ratio for establishing CPG models

  • Q. Fu
  • D. H. Wang
  • L. Xu
  • G. Yuan
Original Article


Nonlinear oscillators are usually utilized by bionic scientists for establishing central pattern generator models for imitating rhythmic motions by bionic scientists. In the natural word, many rhythmic motions possess asymmetric time ratios, which means that the forward and the backward motions of an oscillating process sustain different times within one period. In order to model rhythmic motions with asymmetric time ratios, nonlinear oscillators with asymmetric forward and backward trajectories within one period should be studied. In this paper, based on the property of the invariant set, a method to design the closed curve in the phase plane of a dynamic system as its limit cycle is proposed. Utilizing the proposed method and considering that a cardioid curve is a kind of asymmetrical closed curves, a cardioid oscillator with asymmetric time ratios is proposed and realized. Through making the derivation of the closed curve in the phase plane of a dynamic system equal to zero, the closed curve is designed as its limit cycle. Utilizing the proposed limit cycle design method and according to the global invariant set theory, a cardioid oscillator applying a cardioid curve as its limit cycle is achieved. On these bases, the numerical simulations are conducted for analyzing the behaviors of the cardioid oscillator. The example utilizing the established cardioid oscillator to simulate rhythmic motions of the hip joint of a human body in the sagittal plane is presented. The results of the numerical simulations indicate that, whatever the initial condition is and without any outside input, the proposed cardioid oscillator possesses the following properties: (1) The proposed cardioid oscillator is able to generate a series of periodic and anti-interference self-exciting trajectories, (2) the generated trajectories possess an asymmetric time ratio, and (3) the time ratio can be regulated by adjusting the oscillator’s parameters. Furthermore, the comparison between the simulated trajectories by the established cardioid oscillator and the measured angle trajectories of the hip angle of a human body show that the proposed cardioid oscillator is fit for imitating the rhythmic motions of the hip of a human body with asymmetric time ratios.


Central pattern generator (CPG) Cardioid oscillator Limit cycle Asymmetrical time ratio Global invariant set theory 



This work has been partialy supported by the LPMT, CAEP (Grant No. 2015-01-001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51675070), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Project No. CDJZR12 12 00 05)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Ministry of Education of ChinaChongqing UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Department of Optoelectronic EngineeringChongqing UniversityChongqingChina

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