To evaluate the effect of a beach tennis session on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in adults with hypertension.
In this randomized crossover trial, 24 participants (12 men and 12 women) randomly performed two experimental sessions: a beach tennis session and a non-exercise control session. The beach tennis session started with a standardized 5-min warm-up consisting of basic techniques, followed by three 12-min beach tennis matches with 2-min intervals between them. Heart rate was continuously recorded and rating of perceived exertion was assessed in the middle and at the end of each set during the beach tennis session. Enjoyment was also assessed after the beach tennis session. The control session was performed in seated rest. Both experimental sessions lasted 45 min. Ambulatory blood pressure was measured continuously for 24 h after sessions.
Systolic blood pressure (24-h: 6 mmHg, P = 0.008; daytime: 6 mmHg, P = 0.031; nighttime: 6 mmHg, P = 0.042) and diastolic blood pressure (24-h: 3 mmHg, P = 0.021; daytime: 3 mmHg, P = 0.036; nighttime: 4 mmHg, P = 0.076) decreased after beach tennis when compared with control. The participants presented a reserve heart rate of 59–68%, and a rating of perceived exertion score of 3.4–4.7 using Borg’s CR10 Scale. The enjoyment scores after beach tennis session were higher than 90%.
A single session of recreational beach tennis reduces 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in adults with hypertension. Additionally, the participants can achieve a high physiological stress but perceive less effort during the practice.
Date: April 10, 2019; identifier number NCT03909308 (Clinicaltrials.gov).
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The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Rating of perceived exertion
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We would like to thank Mr Tiago Antunes, Professor Joarez Santini, It’s Esportes e Eventos multisports club and Compass company for their support related to the structure to conduct the experimental sessions (beach tennis courts, rackets, and balls, among others). We also thank Dr. Sandra Fuchs and Guilhermo Sessim for their support related to data analysis and ambulatory blood pressure assessment equipment.
This study was partially funded by the Research and Education Fund of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (FIPE/HCPA, Grant number 18-0642). L.C and L.D received a scholarship from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)—finance code 001. R.F received a fellowship from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil (approval number 20180642), and registered on clinicaltrials.gov (identifier number NCT03909308).
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Communicated by Kirsty Elliott sale.
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Carpes, L., Jacobsen, A., Domingues, L. et al. Recreational beach tennis reduces 24-h blood pressure in adults with hypertension: a randomized crossover trial. Eur J Appl Physiol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-021-04617-4
- Post-exercise hypotension
- Cardiovascular system
- Sand sports
- Racket sports