Three weeks of sprint interval training improved high-intensity cycling performance and limited ryanodine receptor modifications in recreationally active human subjects
Mechanisms underlying the efficacy of sprint interval training (SIT) remain to be understood. We previously reported that an acute bout of SIT disrupts the integrity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel, the ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), in recreationally active human subjects. We here hypothesize that in addition to improving the exercise performance of recreationally active humans, a period of repeated SIT sessions would make the RyR1 protein less vulnerable and accelerate recovery of contractile function after a SIT session.
Eight recreationally active males participated in a 3-week SIT program consisting of nine sessions of four–six 30-s all-out cycling bouts with 4 min of rest between bouts.
Total work performed during a SIT session and maximal power (Wmax) reached during an incremental cycling test were both increased by ~ 7.5% at the end of the training period (P < 0.05). Western blots performed on vastus lateralis muscle biopsies taken before, 1 h, 24 h and 72 h after SIT sessions in the untrained and trained state showed some protection against SIT-induced reduction of full-length RyR1 protein expression in the trained state. SIT-induced knee extensor force deficits were similar in the untrained and trained states, with a major reduction in voluntary and electrically evoked forces immediately and 1 h after SIT (P < 0.05), and recovery after 24 h.
Three weeks of SIT improves exercise performance and provides some protection against RyR1 modification, whereas it does not accelerate recovery of contractile function.
KeywordsPhysical exercise Skeletal muscle Sprint interval training Ryanodine receptor 1
Cytosolic free [Ca2+]
Maximal voluntary contraction
Supramaximal paired electrical stimulation pulses at 10 Hz
Supramaximal paired electrical stimulation pulses at 100 Hz
Ryanodine receptor 1
Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2
Sprint interval training
Voluntary activation level
Maximal power reached during incremental exercise test
This work was supported by grants from the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation (20160741 to D.C.A.), the Jeansson Foundations (to D.C.A.), the Swedish Society for Medical Research (to D.C.A.), the Stockholm County Council (LS 2016-1376 to H.W.), the Swedish Research Council (2018-02576 to H.W.), the Swedish Research Council for Sport Science (P2017-0134 to H.W.), the Research Council of Lithuania (SEN-08/2016 to M.S., H.W., A.S., S.K.), and by institutional funds from the University of Lausanne.
MS, DN, SK, BK, HW, NP, and DCA conceived and design the study. MS, DN, CT, NZ, HW, and NP acquired, analysed, and interpreted data. MS and DN drafted the manuscript and all authors reviewed and revised it critically for important intellectual content. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. All persons designated as authors qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify for authorship are listed.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that no conflict of interests exists.
- Bruton JD, Aydin J, Yamada T, Shabalina IG, Ivarsson N, Zhang SJ, Wada M, Tavi P, Nedergaard J, Katz A, Westerblad H (2010) Increased fatigue resistance linked to Ca2+-stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle fibres of cold-acclimated mice. J Physiol 588(21):4275–4288. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2010.198598 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Gillen JB, Martin BJ, MacInnis MJ, Skelly LE, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ (2016) Twelve weeks of sprint interval training improves indices of cardiometabolic health similar to traditional endurance training despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment. PLoS ONE 11(4):e0154075. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154075 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hebisz P, Hebisz R, Zaton M, Ochmann B, Mielnik N (2016) Concomitant application of sprint and high-intensity interval training on maximal oxygen uptake and work output in well-trained cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol 116(8):1495–1502. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-016-3405-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Place N, Ivarsson N, Venckunas T, Neyroud D, Brazaitis M, Cheng AJ, Ochala J, Kamandulis S, Girard S, Volungevicius G, Pauzas H, Mekideche A, Kayser B, Martinez-Redondo V, Ruas JL, Bruton J, Truffert A, Lanner JT, Skurvydas A, Westerblad H (2015) Ryanodine receptor fragmentation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak after one session of high-intensity interval exercise. PNAS 112(50):15492–15497. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1507176112 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weston M, Taylor KL, Batterham AM, Hopkins WG (2014) Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) on fitness in adults: a meta-analysis of controlled and non-controlled trials. Sports Med 44(7):1005–1017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0180-z CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Wright DC, Geiger PC, Han DH, Jones TE, Holloszy JO (2007) Calcium induces increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha and mitochondrial biogenesis by a pathway leading to p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. J Biol Chem 282(26):18793–18799. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M611252200 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar