Comparison of running and cycling economy in runners, cyclists, and triathletes
Exercise economy is one of the main physiological factors determining performance in endurance sports. Running economy (RE) can be improved with running-specific training, while the improvement of cycling economy (CE) with cycling-specific training is controversial. We investigated whether exercise economy reflects sport-specific skills/adaptations or is determined by overall physiological factors.
We compared RE and CE in 10 runners, 9 cyclists and 9 triathletes for running at 12 km/h and cycling at 200 W. Gross rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were collected and used to calculate gross metabolic rate in watts for both running and cycling.
Runners had better RE than cyclists (917 ± 107 W vs. 1111 ± 159 W) (p < 0.01). Triathletes had intermediate RE values (1004 ± 98 W) not different from runners or cyclists. CE was not different (p = 0.20) between the three groups (runners: 945 ± 60 W; cyclists: 982 ± 44 W; triathletes: 979 ± 54 W).
RE can be enhanced with running-specific training, but CE is independent of cycling-specific training.
KeywordsBicycling Efficiency Exercise Training transfer Triathlon
Analysis of variance
Respiratory exchange ratio
Revolutions per minute
We thank Asher Straw for his help setting up the bicycle ergometer and the power-measuring pedals.
WS and RK conceived and designed the experiment. WS and SK conducted the experiments. WS processed the data and wrote the manuscript. All authors interpreted and discussed the results. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Daniels J, Scardina N, Foley P (1984) VO2 submax during five modes of exercise. In: Bachl N, Prokop L, Sucket R (eds) Proceedings of the world congress on sports medicine. Urban and Schwartzenberg, Vienna, pp 604–615Google Scholar
- Lundby C, Montero D, Gehrig S, Andersson Hall U, Kaiser P, Boushel R, Meinild Lundby A-K, Kirk N, Valdivieso P, Flück M, Secher NH, Edin F, Hein T, Madsen K (2017) Physiological, biochemical, anthropometric, and biomechanical influences on exercise economy in humans. Scand J Med Sci Sports 27(12):1627–1637CrossRefGoogle Scholar