European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 118, Issue 5, pp 1053–1061 | Cite as

Fluid intake restores retinal blood flow early after exhaustive exercise in healthy subjects

  • Tsukasa Ikemura
  • Katsuhiko Suzuki
  • Nobuhiro Nakamura
  • Koichi Yada
  • Naoyuki Hayashi
Original Article
  • 85 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

It remains unclear whether rehydration restores retinal blood flow reduced by exhaustive exercise. We investigated the effect of fluid intake on retinal blood flow after exhaustive exercise.

Methods

Blood flow in the inferior (ITRA) and superior temporal retinal arterioles (STRA) was measured before and after incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion in 13 healthy males. After the exercise, the subjects rested without drinking (control condition: CON) or with drinking an electrolyte containing water (rehydrate condition: REH) and were followed up for a period of 120 min. To assess the hydration state, the body mass was measured, and venous blood samples were collected and plasma volume (PV) was calculated.

Results

Body mass decreased in CON after the trial [− 1.1 ± 0.1% (mean ± SE), p < 0.05]. PV was lower in CON than in REH during recovery. The ITRA and STRA blood flows decreased immediately after exercise from the resting baseline (ITRA; − 23 ± 4% in REH and − 30 ± 4% in CON, p < 0.05). The ITRA blood flow recovered baseline level at 15 min of recovery in REH (− 9 ± 3%, p = 0.5), but it remained reduced in CON (-14 ± 3%, p < 0.05). The STRA blood flow was higher in REH than in CON at 15 min (2 ± 3 vs. − 5 ± 3%, p < 0.05).

Conclusions

The results of this study suggest that the reduction in retinal blood flow induced by exhaustive exercise can be recovered early by rehydration.

Keywords

Ocular circulation Ocular blood flow Exercise Rehydration 

Abbreviations

CI

Conductance index

CON

Control condition

DBP

Diastolic blood pressure

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

HR

Heart rate

ICA

Internal carotid artery

IOP

Intraocular pressure

ITRA

Inferior temporal retinal arteriole

LSFG

Laser-speckle flowgraphy

MAP

Mean arterial pressure

OPP

Ocular perfusion pressure

PaCO2

Arterial partial pressure of CO2

PETCO2

End-tidal partial pressure of CO2

PETO2

End-tidal partial pressure of O2

PV

Plasma volume

\(\dot{Q}\)

Cardiac output

rh

Relative humidity

REH

Rehydrate condition

SBP

Systolic blood pressure

STRA

Superior temporal retinal arteriole

VT

Tidal volume

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Incorporated.

Author contributions

TI and KS conceived and designed research. TI, KS, NN, and KY conducted experiments. TI, NN, and KY analyzed data. TI, KS, and NH interpreted data. TI wrote the manuscript. TI, KS, and NH revised manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of CommerceYokohama College of CommerceYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Sport SciencesWaseda UniversityTokorozawaJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Sport SciencesWaseda UniversityTokorozawaJapan
  4. 4.Institute for Liberal ArtsTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan

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