European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 118, Issue 5, pp 1003–1010 | Cite as

Non-linear growth trends of toe flexor muscle strength among children, adolescents, and young adults: a cross-sectional study

  • Noriteru Morita
  • Junichiro Yamauchi
  • Ryosuke Fukuoka
  • Toshiyuki Kurihara
  • Mitsuo Otsuka
  • Tomoyasu Okuda
  • Noriyuki Shide
  • Isao Kambayashi
  • Hisashi Shinkaiya
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

There are only a few studies on the muscular strength of the foot in children and adolescents; thus, the developmental pattern and normative data of these populations during growth are unclear. We sought to elucidate the developmental pattern of the foot muscle strength among children, adolescents, and young adults compared with that of the hand.

Methods

A total of 747 children, adolescents, and young adults participated in this study, and their maximum isometric toe flexor strength (TFS), hand grip strength (HGS), and foot length were measured.

Results

TFS was correlated with HGS (r = 0.785), age (r = 0.659), height (r = 0.757), body mass (r = 0.737), and foot length (r = 0.594). Multiple regression analyses revealed that TFS was correlated with age (β = 0.243 in boys; β = 0.461 in girls), squared value of age (age2; β = − 0.296 in boys; β = − 0.260 in girls), and body mass (β = 0.256 in boys; β = 0.311 in girls) in both sexes, indicating a non-linear relationship between age and TFS development. In a regression model for HGS, age was a significant variable, but not age2. HGS increased linearly from childhood until young adulthood, whereas TFS increased from childhood until adolescence and then levelled off.

Conclusion

Our results demonstrate that TFS has a different developmental pattern compared with HGS.

Keywords

Growth and development Toe flexor strength Isometric contraction 

Abbreviations

Age2

Squared value of age

BM

Body mass

BM2

Squared value of body mass

Height2

Squared value of height

HGS

Hand grip strength

PHV

Peak height velocity

rHGS

Relative hand grip strength

rTFS

Relative toe flexor strength

TFS

Toe flexor strength

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank all children and teachers who cooperated with us for this study. The present study was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C; #22500619) for H. S.; for Young Scientists (B; #24700631 and # 23700688) for M.O., T.K, respectively; for Young Scientists (A; #23680066) for J.Y.; for Exploratory Research (#24650408) for J.Y. from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

Author contributions

All of authors satisfied the following area of authorship requirements: NM: manuscript writing, concept and study design, data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. JY: manuscript writing, concept and study design, data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. RF: concept and study design, data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. TK: concept and study design, data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. MO: concept and study design, data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. TO: concept and study design, data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. NS: concept and study design, data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. IK: concept and study design, data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. HS: concept and study design, data acquisition, and significant manuscript reviewer/reviser.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.

References

  1. Artero EG, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, España-Romero V, Vicente-Rodríguez G, Molnar D, Gottrand F, González-Gross M, Breidenassel C, Moreno LA, Gutiérrez A, HELENA Study Group (2011) Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with metabolic risk in adolescents: the HELENA study. Pediatr Diabetes 12:704–712CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bale P, Mayhew JL, Piper FC, Ball TE, Willman MK (1992) Biological and performance variables in relation to age in male and female adolescent athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fit 32:142–148Google Scholar
  3. Beunen GP, Malina RM, Renson R, Simons J, Ostyn M, Lefevre J (1992) Physical activity and growth, maturation and performance: a longitudinal study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 24:576–585CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cornett KM, Menezes MP, Bray P, Halaki M, Shy RR, Yum SW, Estilow T, Moroni I, Foscan M, Pagliano E, Pareyson D, Laurá M, Bhandari T, Muntoni F, Reilly MM, Finkel RS, Sowden J, Eichinger KJ, Herrmann DN, Shy ME, Burns J, Inherited Neuropathies Consortium (2016) Phenotypic variability of childhood Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. JAMA Neurol 73:645–651CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Dimachkie MM, Barohn RJ (2014) Distal myopathies. Neurol Clin 32:817–842CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Buchner A, Lang AG (2009) Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behav Res Methods 41:1149–1160CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Goldmann JP, Sanno M, Willwacher S, Heinrich K, Brüggemann GP (2013) The potential of toe flexor muscles to enhance performance. J Sports Sci 31:424–433CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Häkkinen K, Keskinen KL (1989) Muscle cross-sectional area and voluntary force production characteristics in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes and sprinters. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 59:215–220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hansen DM, Herrmann SD, Lambourne K, Lee J, Donnelly JE (2014) Linear/nonlinear relations of activity and fitness with children’s academic achievement. Med Sci Sports Exerc 46:2279–2285CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Hicks J (1954) The mechanics of the foot. II. The plantar aponeurosis and the arch. J Anat 88:25–30PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Ishihara T, Morita N, Nakajima T, Okita K, Yamatsu K, Sagawa M (2018) Direct and indirect relationships of physical fitness, weight status, and learning duration to academic performance in Japanese schoolchildren. Eur J Sport Sci 18:286–294CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Jiménez-Pavón D, Ortega FB, Valtueña J, Castro-Piñero J, Gómez-Martínez S, Zaccaria M, Gottrand F, Molnár D, Sjöström M, González-Gross M, Castillo MJ, Moreno LA, Ruiz JR (2012) Muscular strength and markers of insulin resistance in European adolescents: the HELENA Study. Eur J Appl Physiol 112:2455–2465CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kelly LA, Cresswell AG, Racinais S, Whiteley R, Lichtwark G (2014) Intrinsic foot muscles have the capacity to control deformation of the longitudinal arch. J R Soc Interface 11:20131188CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Ker RF, Bennett MB, Bibby SR, Kester RC, Alexander RM (1987) The spring in the arch of the human foot. Nature 325:147–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Koyama K, Yamauchi J (2017) Altered postural sway following fatiguing foot muscle exercises. PLoS One 12(12):e0189184CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Kura H, Luo ZP, Kitaoka HB, An KN (1997) Quantitative analysis of the intrinsic muscles of the foot. Anat Rec 249:143–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kurihara T, Yamauchi J, Otsuka M, Tottori N, Hashimoto T, Isaka T (2014) Maximum toe flexor muscle strength and quantitative analysis of human plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles by a magnetic resonance imaging technique. J Foot Ankle Res 7:26CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Marquardt DW (1980) You should standardize the predictor variables in your regression models. J Am Stat Assoc 75:87–91Google Scholar
  19. Maughan RJ, Watson JS, Weir J (1984) Muscle strength and cross-sectional area in man: a comparison of strength-trained and untrained subjects. Br J Sports Med 18:149–157CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. McKeon PO, Hertel J, Bramble D, Davis I (2014) The foot core system: a new paradigm for understanding intrinsic foot muscle function. Br J Sports Med 49:290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Morbeck ME, Zihlman AL (1988) Body composition and limb proportions. In: Schwarts J (ed) Orangutan biology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 285–297Google Scholar
  22. Morita N, Yamauchi J, Kurihara T, Fukuoka R, Otsuka M, Okuda T, Ishizawa N, Nakajima T, Nakamichi R, Matsuno S, Kamiie S, Shide N, Kambayashi I, Shinkaiya H (2014) Toe flexor strength and foot arch height in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 47:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Naka H, Iki M, Morita A, Ikeda Y (2005) Effects of pubertal development, height, weight, and grip strength on the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and hip in peripubertal Japanese children: Kyoto kids increase density in the skeleton study (Kyoto KIDS study). J Bone Miner Metab 23:463–469CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Newman DG, Pearn J, Barnes A, Young CM, Kehoe M, Newman J (1984) Norms for hand grip strength. Arch Dis Child 59:453–459CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Ortega FB, Silventoinen K, Tynelius P, Rasmussen F (2012) Muscular strength in male adolescents and premature death: cohort study of one million participants. BMJ 345:e7279CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Otsuka M, Yamauchi J, Kurihara T, Morita N, Isaka T (2015) Toe flexor strength and lower-limb physical performance in adolescent. Gazz Med Ital Arch Sci Med 174:307–313Google Scholar
  27. Pagliano E, Moroni I, Baranello G, Magro A, Marchi A, Bulgheroni S, Ferrarin M, Pareyson D (2011) Outcome measures for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: clinical and neurofunctional assessment in children. J Peripher Nerv Syst 16:237–242CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Philippaerts RM, Vaeyens R, Janssens M, Van Renterghem B, Matthys D, Craen R, Bourgois J, Vrijens J, Beunen G, Malina RM (2006) The relationship between peak height velocity and physical performance in youth soccer players. J Sports Sci 24:221–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ploegmakers JJ, Hepping AM, Geertzen JH, Bulstra SK, Stevens M (2013) Grip strength is strongly associated with height, weight and gender in childhood: a cross sectional study of 2241 children and adolescents providing reference values. J Phyiother 59:255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Quatman CE, Ford KR, Myer GD, Hewett TE (2006) Maturation leads to gender differences in landing force and vertical jump performance: a longitudinal study. Am J Sports Med 34:806–813CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Tam N, Astephen Wilson JL, Noakes TD, Tucker R (2014) Barefoot running: an evaluation of current hypothesis, future research and clinical applications. Br J Sports Med 48:349–355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Thorpe SK, Crompton RH, Günther MM, Ker RF, McNeill Alexander R (1999) Dimensions and moment arms of the hind- and forelimb muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Am J Phys Anthropol 110:179–199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Wind AE, Takken T, Helders PJ, Engelbert RH (2010) Is grip strength a predictor for total muscle strength in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults? Eur J Pediatr 169:281–287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Yamauchi J, Koyama K (2015) Influence of ankle braces on the maximum strength of plantar and toe flexor muscles. Int J Sports Med 36:592–595CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noriteru Morita
    • 1
  • Junichiro Yamauchi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ryosuke Fukuoka
    • 4
  • Toshiyuki Kurihara
    • 5
  • Mitsuo Otsuka
    • 5
  • Tomoyasu Okuda
    • 1
  • Noriyuki Shide
    • 1
  • Isao Kambayashi
    • 6
  • Hisashi Shinkaiya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sport EducationHokkaido University of EducationIwamizawaJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Human Health SciencesTokyo Metropolitan UniversityHachiojiJapan
  3. 3.Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH), Faculty of Associated Medical SciencesKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  4. 4.Graduate School of EducationHokkaido University of EducationSapporoJapan
  5. 5.Faculty of Sport and Health ScienceRitsumeikan UniversityKusatsuJapan
  6. 6.Department of Teacher TrainingHokkaido University of EducationSapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations