Biological aspects of tissue-engineered cartilage
Cartilage regenerative medicine has been progressed well, and it reaches the stage of clinical application. Among various techniques, tissue engineering, which incorporates elements of materials science, is investigated earnestly, driven by high clinical needs. The cartilage tissue engineering using a poly lactide scaffold has been exploratorily used in the treatment of cleft lip-nose patients, disclosing good clinical results during 3-year observation. However, to increase the reliability of this treatment, not only accumulation of clinical evidence on safety and usefulness of the tissue-engineered products, but also establishment of scientific background on biological mechanisms, are regarded essential. In this paper, we reviewed recent trends of cartilage tissue engineering in clinical practice, summarized experimental findings on cellular and matrix changes during the cartilage regeneration, and discussed the importance of further studies on biological aspects of tissue-engineered cartilage, especially by the histological and the morphological methods.
KeywordsCartilage Regenerative medicine Chondrocyte Tissue engineering Scaffold
This study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Medical Research and Development Programs Focused on Technology Transfer (AMED A-STEP, D07-05), and Research Project for Practical Applications of Regenerative Medicine (AMED).
- Asawa Y, Sakamoto T, Komura M, Watanabe M, Nishizawa S, Takazawa Y, Takato T, Hoshi K (2012) Early stage foreign body reaction against biodegradable polymer scaffolds affects tissue regeneration during the autologous transplantation of tissue-engineered cartilage in the canine model. Cell Transplant 21:1431–1442. https://doi.org/10.3727/096368912X640574 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beekman B, Verzijl N, de Roos JA, TeKoppele JM (1998) Matrix degradation by chondrocytes cultured in alginate: IL-1 beta induces proteoglycan degradation and proMMP synthesis but does not result in collagen degradation. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 6:330–340. https://doi.org/10.1053/joca.1998.0132 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoshi K, Fujihara Y, Asawa Y, Nishizawa S, Kanazawa S, Sakamoto T, Watanabe M, Ogasawara T, Saijo H, Mori Y, Takato T (2013) Recent trends of cartilage regenerative medicine and its application to the oral and maxillofacial surgery. Oral Sci Int 10:15–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1348-8643(12)00049-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hoshi K, Fujihara Y, Saijo H, Asawa Y, Nishizawa S, Kanazawa S, Uto S, Inaki R, Matsuyama M, Sakamoto T, Watanabe M, Sugiyama M, Yonenaga K, Hikita A, Takato T (2017a) Implant-type tissue-engineered cartilage for secondary correction of cleft lip-nose patients: an exploratory first-in-human trial. J Clin Trials 7:1000315. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-0870.1000315 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hoshi K, Fujihara Y, Saijo H, Kurabayashi K, Suenaga H, Asawa Y, Nishizawa S, Kanazawa S, Uto S, Inaki R, Matsuyama M, Sakamoto T, Watanabe M, Sugiyama M, Yonenaga K, Hikita A, Takato T (2017b) Three-dimensional changes of noses after transplantation of implant-type tissue-engineered cartilage for secondary correction of cleft lip-nose patients. Regen Ther 7:72–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reth.2017.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jeong CG, Hollister SJ (2010) A comparison of the influence of material on in vitro cartilage tissue engineering with PCL, PGS, and POC 3D scaffold architecture seeded. with chondrocytes. Biomaterials 31:4304–4312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.01.145 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Langer R, Vacanti JP (1993) Tissue Eng Sci 260:920–926Google Scholar
- Takebe T, Kobayashi S, Suzuki H, Mizuno M, Chang YM, Yoshizawa E, Kimura M, Hori A, Asano J, Maegawa J, Taniguchi H (2014) Transient vascularization of transplanted human adult-derived progenitors promotes self-organizing cartilage. J Clin Invest 124:4325–4334. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI76443 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Tanaka Y, Yamaoka H, Nishizawa S, Nagata S, Ogasawara T, Asawa Y, Fujihara Y, Takato T, Hoshi K (2010) The optimization of porous polymeric scaffolds for chondrocyte/atelocollagen based tissue-engineered cartilage. Biomaterials 31:4506–4516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.02.028 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yanaga H, Yanaga K, Imai K, Koga M, Soejima C, Ohmori K (2006) Clinical application of cultured autologous human auricular chondrocytes with autologous serum for craniofacial or nasal augmentation and repair. Plast Reconstr Surg 117:2019–2030. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000210662.12267.de (discussion 2031-2012)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar