Platelet-released growth factors can accelerate tenocyte proliferation and activate the anti-oxidant response element

Abstract

Little is know about the pathophysiology of acute and degenerative tendon injuries. Although most lesions are uncomplicated, treatment is long and unsatisfactory in a considerable number of cases. Besides the common growth factors that were shown to be relevant for tendon integrity more recently protection against oxidative stress was shown to promote tendon healing. To improve tendon regeneration, many have advocated the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a thrombocyte concentrate that can serve as an autologous source of growth factors. In this study, we investigated the effect of platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) on tenocytes. Tenocytes were isolated from the Achilles tendon of postnatal rats. Tenocyte cell cultures were stimulated with PRGF. We used a CyQuant assay and WST assay to analyse tendon cell growth and viability in different concentrations of PRGF. Migration and proliferation of cells grown in PRGF were assessed by a scratch test. A dual-luciferase assay was used to demonstrate the activation of the anti-oxidant response element (ARE) in tenocytes. A positive effect of PRGF could be shown on tendon cell growth and migratory capacity. PRGF activated the Nrf2–ARE pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Here, we provide evidence of a biological effect of PRGF on tenocytes by the promotion of tenocyte growth and activation of the Nrf2–ARE pathway. This is a novel aspect of the action of platelet concentrates on tendon growth.

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All authors have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Thomas Pufe.

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M. Tohidnezhad, D. Varoga, T. Pufe, and S. Lippross contributed equally to the work.

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Movie 1a Scratch test. Cells were seeded on a thermanox-slide in PRGF 10% (movie 1a); time interval observed was 12 h. Scratch test revealed migration of tenocytes due to PRGF.

Movie 1b Scratch test. Cells were seeded on a thermanox-slide in control (movie 1b); time interval observed was 12 h. Scratch test revealed migration of tenocytes due to PRGF.

Supplementary Figure 1

Tenocytes migrating out of the Achilles tendon explant. (TIFF 658 kb)

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Tohidnezhad, M., Varoga, D., Wruck, C.J. et al. Platelet-released growth factors can accelerate tenocyte proliferation and activate the anti-oxidant response element. Histochem Cell Biol 135, 453–460 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00418-011-0808-0

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Keywords

  • PRP
  • PRGF
  • Tenocyte
  • Nrf-2