To evaluate the prevalence of AMD among optometric telemedicine users in Spain and to identify risk factors.
Retrospective analysis of a nationwide database conducted on subjects attending to optometry centers, between January 2013 and December 2019. Fundus photographs were performed by optometrists, using non-mydriatic cameras, and evaluated by a group of 12 retina specialists.
Among the 119,877 subjects included, the overall prevalence of AMD was 7.6%. The prevalence of early, intermediate, and advanced AMD was 2.9%, 2.7%, and 2.0%, respectively. Of the 9129 AMD subjects, 1161 (12.7%) had geographic atrophy, and 1089 (11.9%) had neovascular AMD, either scar (4.5%) or exudative (7.4%). There was a significant association between AMD and age (per year older, adjusted odds ratio, OR 1.116; 95% CI 1.114 to 1.119, p<0.0001). Women had higher prevalence (adjusted OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.23, p<0.0001). Every diopter (spherical equivalent) of progress toward hyperopia was associated with a significant increase in early AMD prevalence (adjusted OR 1.02, 95 CI 1.01 to 1.04, p=0.0074). Presence of diabetes was associated with a lower AMD prevalence (p<0.0001).
The prevalence of AMD (any eye and any severity) was 7.6%, with a prevalence of advanced AMD of 2.0%. Older age and women were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of AMD, whereas myopia and presence of diabetes were associated with significantly lower odds of any AMD.
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Medical writing and editorial assistant services have been provided by Ciencia y Deporte S.L. and covered by a Grant from Allergan.
Optretina reading group
Miguel A Zapata (MD, PhD)1,2; Gabriel Arcos (MD)3,4; Anniken Burés (MD,PhD)3,5; Alex Fonollosa (MD, PhD)3,6; Ignacio Flores-Moreno (MD, PhD)3,7; Roberto Gallego-Pinazo (MD, PhD)3,8; Estanislao Gutiérrez (MD, PhD)3,9; Andrea Oléñik (MD, PhD)3; Salvador Pastor (MD, PhD)3,10; Jorge Ruiz-Medrano (MD, PhD, FEBO)3,7; Cecilia Salinas(MD)3,5; Maximino Abraldes (MD, PhD)3,11
1Optretina. Barcelona (Spain)
2Hospital Vall Hebron. Barcelona (Spain)
3Retinal specialist, retina readers. Barcelona (Spain)
4AMEDICS, Barcelona (Spain)
5IMO, Instituto de Microcirugía Ocular, Barcelona (Spain)
6Hospital de Cruces, Bilbao (Vizcaya, Spain)
7Hospital Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)
8Oftalvist, Valencia (Spain)
9Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain)
10Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valladolid (Spain)
11Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña, Spain)
Support for this assistance was funded by Allergan S.A.
Statement of ethics
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hospital Vall d’Hebron (Barcelona, Spain).
Consent to participate
Patients were fully informed about the study objectives and its limitations, and written informed consent was obtained before any test were carried out.
Dr. Miguel A Zapata has received a Grant from Allergan during the conduct of the study for medical writing and editorial assistant services. All other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest in this paper.
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Zapata, M.A., Burés, A., Gallego-Pinazo, R. et al. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration among optometric telemedicine users in Spain: a retrospective nationwide population-based study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00417-021-05093-4
- Age-related macular degeneration
- Retinal disorders
- Risk factors