Table 3 Overview of dermatological signs and symptoms at diagnosis

From: Sneddon syndrome: a comprehensive clinical review of 53 patients

Characteristic Value (N = 53)
N (%)
Location of livedo reticularis  
 Face 7 (14)
 Arms 40 (77)
 Legs 52 (98)
 Trunk 34 (65)
 Buttocks 8 (15)
 Trunk and/or buttocks 35 (67)
Skin biopsy performed 43 (81)
Skin biopsy standardizeda 20 (47)
Sneddon syndrome-related abnormalities 29 (67)
Type of abnormalitiesb  
 Thickened vessel wall 20 (69)
 Neovascularization 27 (93)
 Occluded vessels 10 (35)
 Inflammatory cells surrounding vessels 6 (21)
Location of abnormalities  
 Superficial dermis 1 (4)
 Deep dermis 20 (71)
 Total dermis 7 (25)
  1. aUnstandardized procedures included less than 3 biopsies (n = 15), biopsies not deep enough (n = 7) or not taken from the white centre of the livedo (n = 3)
  2. bTotals can exceed 100%, because skin biopsies can show multiple abnormalities